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African Americans

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  1. African American
  2. Jazz
      Provides some insight into African American culture in the 20th Century through biographies. 2-01

  1. African Americans (Information Please)
      Provides an alphabetic listing. 10-04

  1. Angelou, Maya (ABC News)
      Provides an interview with the poet, author, and educator. 05-14

  1. Aaron, Hank (Encyclopedia Britannica)
      Provides a brief biography of the great baseball player. "Aaron's batting records include totals of 755 home runs, 1,477 extra-base hits, and 2,297 runs batted in. His other career statistics include 2,174 runs scored (second to Ty Cobb) and 12,364 times at bat in 3,298 games (second to Pete Rose). His hits (3,771) were exceeded only by those of Ty Cobb and Pete Rose. Aaron's lifetime batting average was .305." 1-05

  2. Abernathy, Ralph (Awesome Library)
  3. Ali, Muhammad (Awesome Library)
  4. Allen, Richard (Bright)
      Provides a picture and a short biography of this influential 19th Century African American. 2-01

  5. Anderson, Marian (Awesome Library)
  6. Angelou, Maya (
      Provides a biography of the poet and writer. 1-05

  7. Armistead, James (Time Magazine)
      Wars are rarely fought without the use of spies and the American Revolution was no exception. Arguably, the most important Revolutionary War spy was a slave named James Armistead. 02-07

  8. Armstrong, Louie (Awesome Library)
  9. Ashe, Arthur (
      Provides a biography of the tennis champion. 1-05

  10. Baker, Josephine (
      Provides a biography of the singer and dancer. 1-05

  11. Baldwin, James (
      Provides a biography of the writer. 1-05

  12. Basie, Count (Awesome Library)
      Provides a biography of the bandleader and pianist. 2-01

  13. Bassett, Angela (
      Provides a biography of the actress. 1-05

  14. Belafonte, Harry (
      Provides a biography of the singer, actor, and producer. 1-05

  15. Berry, Halle (
      Provides a biography of the actress. 1-05

  16. Biographies by Field and Alphabetical - African American (
      Provides biographies. 1-05

  17. Bond, Julian (
      Provides a biography of the civil rights leader. 1-05

  18. Bowser, Mary Elizabeth (Bright)
      Provides a short biography of this influential 19th Century African American.

  19. Brown, Charlotte Hawkins (ABC's of Parenting)
      Provides a biography under "Dr. Brown" in the middle of the left table.

  20. Brown, Jim (
      Provides a biography of the great football player. "A durable player of exceptional power and quickness, Brown led the league in rushing eight times. Elected to both the Professional Football Hall of Fame and the National Lacrosse Hall of Fame, he later pursued a career as a film actor. He was also active in promoting black economic causes and working with youth gangs." 1-05

  21. Bunche, Ralph (Awesome Library)
  22. Calloway, Cab (Awesome Library)
      Provides a biography of the singer and band leader. 1-05

  23. Carmichael, Stokely (
      Provides a biography of the civil rights activist. 1-05

  24. Carter, Eunice Hunton (Time Magazine)
      "The 1920s and 30s were a time when organized crime was an unseen hand playing a significant part in urban life across the country. In no city was that more evident than New York. At the time, law enforcement hadn't made the connection between racketeering and petty crime. Then Eunice Hunton Carter came along." 02-07

  25. Carver, George Washington (Awesome Library)
  26. Chamberlain, Wilt (
      Provides a biography of the basketball great. "Wilt Chamberlain was one of the most dominating centers in basketball history. Taller and stronger than most of his opponents, Chamberlain was an unstoppable force who made floating in fade-away jumpshots and ripping down rebounds his career. He filled countless pages of basketball record books with his impressive achievements." 1-05

  27. Charles, Ray (Awesome Library)
  28. Chisholm, Shirley (
      Provides a biography of the politician. "Elected (1968) to the U.S. House of Representatives as a Democrat, Chisholm became the first black woman to serve in that body. She quickly gained national attention as a vocal critic of the war in Vietnam and the House seniority system and as an outspoken advocate of the interests of the urban poor. An active member of the black Congressional caucus, Chisholm made an unsuccessful bid for the 1972 Democratic presidential nomination." 1-05

  29. Cole, Nat "King" (
      Provides a biography of the singer and composer. "He was one of the first African-American artists to star in a radio show (1948–49), and in 1956 he became the first African American to host a network television show. His daughter Natalie (Maria) Cole,. 1950–, b. Los Angeles, is also a popular singer." 1-05

  30. Cosby, Bill (Awesome Library)
  31. Crummell, Alexander (Bright)
      Provides a picture and a short biography of this influential 19th Century African American.

  32. Crumpler, Rebecca Lee (Time Magazine)
      "Because medical practitioners focus more on their patients than any notoriety, historical figures in medicine are often rendered obscure. Such is the case of Dr. Rebecca Lee Crumpler, the first African American woman to receive a medical degree in the U.S."

      After the war, Crumpler moved to Richmond, Va., where her main focus was on the health needs of freed slaves. In her work with other black doctors, she tended to large groups of the poor and destitute that would have had little access to medical care and a new path was forged for healthcare in underserved communities. Her experience there, and later in Boston, led her to publish her now-renown Book of Medical Discourses In Two Parts, one of the first known medical writings by an African American and an early guidebook on public health." 02-07

  33. Davis, Ossie (Awesome Library)
  34. Destiny's Child (
      "Beyoncé Knowles, TaTavia Roberson, Kelly Rowland, and LeToya Luckett first came together as rap singing tots under the management of Matthew Knowles, Beyoncé's father and cousin Kelly's legal guardian."

      "In 2000, they had three No.1 hits on the Billboard Hot 100, 'Bills, Bills, Bills,' 'Say My Name,' and 'Independent Women.' In 2001, they won the Favorite Band Award at the Annual American Music Awards and the Sammy Davis Jr. Award for Entertainer of the Year."

      "Beyoncé's debut solo album, Dangerously in Love (2003), earned her six nominations for the 2003 Grammys." 1-05

  35. Douglass, Frederick (Awesome Library)
  36. Douglass, Frederick (Bright)
      Provides a picture and a short biography of this influential 19th Century African American.

  37. Douglass, Frederick (Bright)
      Provides a picture and a short biography of this influential 19th Century African American.

  38. Douglass, Frederick (CNN)
      Provides pictures and a short biography of this influential 19th Century African American.

  39. Du Bois, W.E.B. (Awesome Library)
  40. Ellington, Duke (Awesome Library)
      Provides a biography of the bandleader, composer, and pianist. 2-01

  41. Emeagwali, Philip (Time Magazine)
      "It's hard to say who invented the Internet. There were many mathematicians and scientists who contributed to its development; computers were sending signals to each other as early as the 1950s. But the Web owes much of its existence to Philip Emeagwali, a math whiz who came up with the formula for allowing a large number of computers to communicate at once." 02-07

  42. Erving, Julius (
      "American basketball player, b. Roosevelt, N.J., known as 'Dr. J.' An excellent shooter, rebounder, and ball-handler, he played for the American Basketball Association's Virginia Squires (1971–73) and New York Nets (1973–76) and for the National Basketball Association's Philadelphia 76ers (1976–87). He led the ABA in scoring three times (1973–74, 1976) and was named most valuable player four times (ABA, 1974–76; NBA, 1981). With 30,026 career points in both leagues, he ranks third on the all-time scoring list." 1-05

  43. Farrakhan, Louis (
      "In 1995 he was one of the chief organizers of the Million Man March, a day of renewal for African-American men in Washington, D.C." 1-05

  44. Fitzgerald, Ella (Awesome Library)
  45. Fuller, Dr. Solomon Carter (Time Magazine)
      "He wrote that the cases supported Alzheimer's discovery of a particular form of dementia and that it was not due to senility, but rather an actual disease. The research proved to be a watershed in the study of the disorder and Fuller's name was forever linked with modern understanding of the ailment [Alzheimer's Disease]." 02-07

  46. Garnet, Henry Highland (Bright)
      Provides a picture and a short biography of this influential 19th Century African American.

  47. Gordy, Berry (
      "In 1959 he founded the Motown Record Corporation, which scored its first gold record with Smokey Robinson's 'Shop Around' the next year." 1-05

  48. Hamer, Fannie Lou Townsend (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee)
      Provides a biography of the civil rights activist. 6-00

  49. Harriet Tubman (Awesome Library)
      Provides biographies of the influential African American woman. 1-05

  50. Height, Dorothy Dies (CNN News)
      "President Obama called her a hero and the 'godmother' of the movement, noting she 'served as the only woman at the highest level of the civil rights movement -- witnessing every march and milestone along the way.' " 04-10

  51. Himes, Gregory ( - Artz)
      "Gregory Hines, the greatest tap dancer of his generation who transcended the stage with a successful screen career that included starring roles in White Nights and The Cotton Club, has died at 57." 5-02

  52. Horne, Lena (
      Provides a short biography. 11-01

  53. Horne: Lena Horne Dies at 92 (
      "Gorgeous, gifted and preternaturally poised, the 24-year-old actress-singer came to Hollywood in 1941 and quickly became the first African-American movie star." 05-10

  54. Horne: Lena Horne Dies at 92 (
      "Gorgeous, gifted and preternaturally poised, the 24-year-old actress-singer came to Hollywood in 1941 and quickly became the first African-American movie star." 05-10

  55. Houston, Charles Hamilton (Humanities - Linder)
      Provides a detailed biography of the man considered by many as the architect of the modern civil rights movement in the USA. His strategy was to attack "Jim Crow" laws in education, challenging the "separate but equal" provisions. 10-09

  56. Houston, Whitney (
      "Grammy Award-winning pop singer and actress known for her remarkable vocal range and powerful, gospel-inspired ballads." 1-05

  57. Jackson, Mahalia (Awesome Library)
  58. Jackson, Mahalia (Southern Music Network)
      Provides a short background of the African American gospel singer. 12-00

  59. Jazz Greats (Awesome Library)
  60. Johnson, Jack - Unforgivable Blackness (CBS News)
      The film "Unforgivable Blackness" focuses on "the first black heavyweight boxing champion, whose dominance over white opponents in the early 20th century sparked furious debates and even ignited race riots."

      "Extreme racism was a foe of Johnson's as sure as any opponent in the ring."

      "Johnson was an in-your-face fighter of the white establishment at a time when racism was insidious in America, Burns tells The Early Show co-anchor Harry Smith." 1-05

  61. Jones, Frederick (Time Magazine)
      "In total Jones was granted more than 60 patents for inventions including a defroster, a two-cycle gas engine, and a thermostat system. He later served as an consultant to both the U.S. Defense Department and the U.S. Bureau of Standards on refrigeration. Thirty years after his death in 1961, Jones was posthumously awarded the National Medal of Technology, engineering's highest honor." 02-07

  62. Jones, Quincy (
      "Grammy Award-winning pop-soul composer, arranger, instrumentalist and producer known for his behind-the-scenes influence in the music industry."

      "He has scored more than 50 films, including The Wiz (1978) and The Color Purple (1985). He also produced Michael Jackson's Off the Wall (1978) and co-produced Jackson's Thriller (1982). He leads his own recording label, Quest, and is involved in movie, television, and multimedia production. Jones was the coproducer of the 1995 Academy Awards broadcast." 1-05

  63. Joyner-Kersee, Jackie (Sports Illustrated)
      Provides a biography of the greatest athletes of the 20th Century. "In ways that could be measured, Jackie Joyner-Kersee was one of the greatest Olympic athletes in history, and in ways that could not, she was a rare combination of courage and grace, of power and vulnerability." Includes a picture. 12-02

  64. Just, Ernest Everett (Time Magazine)
      "The next year [1939], Just published his most famous work, The Biology of the Cell Surface which argued that all life derives from a complex organic structure." 02-07

  65. Keckly, Elizabeth - From Slavery to the White House (US News)
      "She comforted Mary Todd Lincoln when the first lady's young son Willie died and when her husband, Abraham, was shot. She was Mrs. Lincoln's dressmaker and confidant, and she owned her own business at a time when few women did—especially if they were former slaves." 06-07

  66. King, Martin Luther (MLK) (Awesome Library)
  67. Langston, John Mercer (Bright)
      Provides a picture and a short biography of this influential 19th Century African American.

  68. Lewis, Carl (
      Provides a biography of the track and field champion. 1-05

  69. Lewis, Sir William Arthur (Time Magazine)
      "The problem of economics in developing nations has always been a very complex equation that no theorist has been able to solve. However disparities between agrarian and industrialized economies and how they can relate and balance each other has its roots in the theories of economist William Arthur Lewis." 02-07

  70. Louis, Joe (Awesome Library)
  71. Malcolm X (
      Provides a biography. 1-05

  72. Malcolm X Killer Freed (CNN News)
      "Thomas Hagan, the only man who admitted his role in the 1965 assassination of iconic black leader Malcolm X, was paroled Tuesday." 04-10

  73. Marshall, Thurgood (Awesome Library)
  74. Moore, Archie (
      "Prolific light heavyweight champion who set the record for knockouts in a career and was the only boxer to fight both Rocky Marciano and Muhammad Ali,...he held the light heavyweight title for 11 of the 27 years he boxed...lost just four of 48 fights between 1935-38." 1-05

  75. Moseley-Braun, Carol (
      Provides a biography of the African American woman elected to the U.S. Senate. "As a senator, she sponsored several progressive education bills and championed strong gun control laws." 1-05

  76. Parks, Gordon (Awesome Library)
      Provides several biographies. 05-06

  77. Parks, Rosa (Awesome Library)
  78. Pleasant, Mary Ellen (Pacific Bell)
      Provides information and pictures regarding Pleasant, a leader of civil rights causes in California during the Civil War era. One of very few African American women who have become well known from that era. 12-99

  79. Politicians - African American (
      Provides biographies. Includes James Armistead, American Revolution patriot, Tom Bradley, American politician, Carol Mosely Braun, U.S. senator, Edward Brooke, American politician, Ralph Bunche, U.S. government official and United Nations diplomat, Julia Carson, American politician, Shirley Anita St. Hill Chisholm, American politician, John Conyers, politician, Paul Cuffe, U.S. merchant, seaman, and philanthropist, Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., American air force general, Benjamin O. Davis, Sr., American general, David Dinkins, political leader, Joycelyn Elders, U.S. Surgeon General, William H. Hastie, U.S. jurist, Richard Gordon Hatcher, politician, law professor, A. Leon Higginbotham, Jr., prominent black federal judge and historian, Benjamin Hooks, American black leader, Gen. Oliver Otis Howard, Union general in the Civil War, Jesse Jackson, political leader, clergyman, and civil-rights activist, Maynard Jackson, mayor of Atlanta, Daniel "Chappie" James, first black U.S. Air Force general, Barbara Jordan, lawyer, public official, and educator, John Mercer Langston, public official, diplomat, educator, Greenbury Logan, Texan soldier, Thurgood Marshall, U.S. lawyer and Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, Floyd McKissick, U.S. lawyer and civil-rights leader, Kweisi Mfume, politician, NAACP leader, Eleanor Holmes Norton, lawyer and government official, P. B. S. Pinchback, U.S. politician, Colin Powell, U.S. army general and public official, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., American politician and clergyman, Joseph Rainey, U.S. politician, A. Philip Randolph, U.S. labor leader, Charles Rangel, U.S. politician, Hiram R. Revels, U.S. clergyman, educator, and politician, Condoleeza Rice, diplomat, professor, Myra C. Selby, attorney, Indiana jurist, Robert Smalls, U.S. captain in the Union navy and politician, Carl B. Stokes, American political leader, Clarence Thomas, associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, Harold Washington, American politician, J. C. Watts, politician, Robert C. Weaver, U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, and Andrew Young, African American leader, clergyman, and public official. 1-05

  80. Powell, Colin (Awesome Library)
  81. Rice, Condoleeza (Awesome Library)
  82. Robeson, Paul (Awesome Library)
  83. Scientists and Inventors - African American (
      Provides biographies. 1-05

  84. Shadd, Mary Ann (Bright)
      Provides a picture and a short biography of this influential 19th Century African American.

  85. Terrell, Mary Church (Bright)
      Provides a picture and a short biography of this influential 19th Century African American.

  86. Truth - Sojurner (Bright)
      Provides a picture and a short biography of this influential 19th Century African American.

  87. Truth, Sojurner (Bright)
      Provides a picture and a short biography of this influential 19th Century African American.

  88. Tubman, Harriet (Awesome Library)
  89. Turner, Henry McNeal (Bright)
      Provides a picture and a short biography of this influential 19th Century African American.

  90. Turner, Nat (Bright)
      Provides a short biography of this influential 19th Century African American.

  91. Venus and Serena Williams (CNN News)
      Provides a short biography of the two top players in women's tennis. They are the first sisters to be ranked first and second in tennis history. No brothers have ever held the distinction. 7-02

  92. Walker, Alice (
      "African-American novelist and poet, b. Eatonon, Ga. She brings her travel experience in Africa and memories of the American civil-rights movement to an examination of the experience of African Americans, mainly in the South, and of Africans." 1-05

  93. Walker, Maggie (Time Magazine)
      "In 1903 she convinced those who would listen to her to bring together about $9,400 and opened the St. Luke Penny Savings Bank, becoming the first woman of any race to preside over a savings institution at a time when only a handful of women held power in corporations. "We need a savings bank," she said. "Chartered, offered and run by the men and women of this order. Let us have a bank that will take nickels and turn them into dollars.""

      "Bank customers deposited a nickel a week into their accounts, and the assets continued to multiply. By 1913, the bank had collected $300,000 in assets. By 1920, it had helped to purchase 600 homes. In 1929 the Great Depression struck, crippling financial institutions nationwide. But St. Luke Savings had enough in holdings to absorb all the other local black-owned banks and become Consolidated Bank and Trust, holding assets of $400,000. The bank is still headquartered in Richmond today." 02-07

  94. Washington, Denzel (
      "Academy Award-winning film and television actor whose films include Cry Freedom (1987), Glory (1989) (for which he won a best-supporting actor Oscar), and Malcolm X (1992)." 1-05

  95. Wilkins, Roy (
      "In 1955 he became executive secretary of the NAACP and in 1965, when the title of the position was changed, executive director, a position he held until 1977. In 1963 he helped organize the historic civil-rights march on Washington, D.C. Devoted to the principle of nonviolence, Wilkins came under increasing attack in the 1960s and early 70s from more militant blacks." 1-05

  96. Winfrey, Oprah (Awesome Library)
  97. Wonder, Stevie (
      "Grammy Award-winning singer, composer, producer, arranger, and instrumentalist known for his unlimited ability to produce a kind of spiritually informed, upbeat rhythm and blues that crossed over to millions of fans. B, Wonder signed with Motown Records at age 10 and has been recording ever since." 1-05

  98. Woods, Tiger (Awesome Library)
  99. Woodson, Carter (Awesome Library)
  100. Writers - African American (
      Provides biographies. 1-05


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