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Countering Terrorism

Electromagnetic Pulse
Torture and Brutality

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  1. Convicting the Innocent
  2. Helping Children Cope
  3. Homeland Security
  4. Islam
  5. Middle East
  6. Muslim Rage
  7. Muslims Against Terrorism
Lesson Plans
  1. Countering Terrorism (PBS)
      Provides a lesson plan for high school students to help them assess different approaches to taming international terrorism. 11-01

  2. In Search of Al Qaeda (PBS Frontline)
      Provides resources for teachers. 10-04

  1. Terrorism Background and Threat Assessments (Federation of American Scientists)
      Provides sources of information related to acts of terrorism, threats of terrorism, documents opposing terrorism, and steps to counter terrorism. 3-02

  2. Terrorism and War Articles (University at Buffalo)
      Provides sources of dozens of articles to provide insight into the foundations of terrorism, war, and revolution. 1-02

  3. Terrorists Hijacked Islam (Independent - Yusuf Islam)
      Provides examples from the Koran that show that the September 11th terrorists "hijacked" Islam. Also called 911, 9-11, or 9/11. 10-01

  1. -06-28-07 "We're Not Going to Kill Our Way to Victory" (CBS News)
      "Support grows for uprooting terror havens rather than relying on firefights."

      "It is not uncommon for a battle-ready Army special forces team to rumble into a remote village and spend most of its time painting mosques, drilling wells and running medical clinics."

      " 'It's basically anything that doesn't involve combat operations against terrorists,' said Andrew Feickert, a national defense specialist at the Congressional Research Service in Washington. 'As Admiral Olson has said, we're not going to kill our way to victory.' " 06-07

  2. -07-10-07 Registered Traveler Program Coming to Airports (Christian Science Monitor)
      "The registered traveler program, conceived after 9/11 as a way to speed frequent fliers through airports' long and unpredictable security lines, is finally gaining national momentum."

      "Though it isn't expected to be operational in enough airports to ease those jam-packed security lines for this peak flying season, it should help by next summer, when as many as 20 major airports are expected to have special security lanes for registered travelers." 07-07

  3. -10-03-07 Nation Preparing for Three Large Terrorism Simulations (CBS News)
      "The nation is preparing for its biggest terrorism exercise ever next week when three fictional 'dirty bombs' go off and cripple transportation arteries in two major U.S. cities and Guam, according to a document obtained by The Associated Press." 10-07

  4. -10-16-07 Moderate Muslims Speak to Christians (Christian Science Monitor)
      "The open letter from 138 prominent Muslims – including imams, ayatollahs, grand muftis, sheikhs, and scholars – said 'the future of the world depends on peace between Muslims and Christians,' urgent language indicating a concern that tensions between the two faiths are in danger of spiraling out of control."

      "The Muslim signatories are authoritative, representing all major schools of Islamic thought, as well as influential at the grass-roots level, say scholars of Islam."

      "With its call for finding common ground in the foundational principles shared by the two faiths, the letter presents a significant counterweight to the voices of radical Islam on the global stage and is being heralded by Christian clergy and scholars as of historic import." 10-07

  5. 10-15-07 The Trouble With Terror Drills (
      "But as we also learned from Katrina, which was preceded a year before by a comprehensive simulation dubbed Hurricane Pam, drills don't always translate into progress. If they're going to work, they have to be realistic — and therein lies the problem with TOPOFF. Guess who won't be invited to it? You and me, or many other average folks, for that matter. Sorry, the public and the media have never been allowed to fully participate in the nation's most elaborate counterterrorism drills. Which is sort of like holding a band practice without the drums, the bass or the sound system." 10-07

  6. CIA May Have Failed to Circulate Report on Terrorism Suspect (CNN News)
      "The father of terrorism suspect Umar Farouk AbdulMutallab talked about his son's extremist views with someone from the CIA and a report was prepared, but the report was not circulated outside the agency, a reliable source told CNN's Jeanne Meserve on Tuesday."

      "Had that information been shared, the 23-year-old Nigerian who is alleged to have bungled an attempt to blow up a jetliner as it was landing in Detroit, Michigan, on Christmas Day might have been denied passage on the Northwest Airlines flight, the source said." 12-09

  1. -08-04-05 Eased Logging Rules Stopped by Judge in the Northwest (MSNBC News)
      "A federal judge struck down a move by the Bush administration to ease logging restrictions in the Northwest, saying the government failed to consider the effect on rare plants and animals." 8-05

  2. -Defining Terrorism - You Decide (Christian Science Monitor - Jenkins)
      Provides three different definitions of terrorism and asks you to pick one. Then it asks you to decide if certain acts are acts of terrorism, based on the definition you chose. Example:

      "Powerful state-sponsored troops ravage insurgent resources to hasten the end of civil war. They burn their way through a swath of rebel territory, sparing only civilians and their homes." Is this an act of terrorism? 11-05

  3. -Editorial - Terrorists Require the Partnership of Mass Media (Christian Science Monitor - Felling)
      "Troubling questions abound: Does terrorism exist without the media? Does coverage of terrorist acts empower or encourage the people behind them? If terrorism is directed more at the audience than at its victims, shouldn't television journalists stop giving terrorists the forum they covet?"

      "Certainly, television news covers terrorist attacks for the high-minded journalistic objective of informing viewers. But the zeal with which fear has been commoditized - from shark attacks to child kidnappings to the Washington sniper - is a product of TV executives realizing that frightened people put down the remote control and await news updates, ratcheting up ratings points. Unfortunately, this living-room fearmongering plays right into the hands of terrorists who are attempting to rattle every American, turning television news reporters into de facto publicists for terrorists."

      "Nearly 20 years ago, the eminent Washington reporter David Broder suggested that 'the essential ingredient of any effective antiterrorist policy must be the denial to the terrorist of access to mass media outlets.' He said this in a different era, before 24-hour news channels were in hot competition for Americans' attention. He's still right."

      "Amateur cooks learn quickly that pouring water on a grease fire only makes it worse. Broadcasters must realize that their coverage might be doing the same. Like cutting off the oxygen that sustains a flame, a few internal shifts in reporting policy would traumatize viewers less and could save lives." 9-04

  4. -Editorial: Obama's Response to Torture Report Cowardly (Huffington Post)
      "So let's cut the talk of fundamental American values that the rest of the world should admire. Obama may not want to dwell on the past, but history will, and his legacy on torture will be one of acceptance." 12-14

  5. -Editorial: U.S. Needs to Explain Decision Not to Prosecute on Torture (Huffington Post)
      "The Senate torture report released on Tuesday has led to the inevitable calls for prosecution of the government officials who may have committed crimes. Although the Justice Department this week reaffirmed its earlier position that it would not be prosecuting anyone, that leaves a burning question open: why not?." 12-14

  6. -Editorial: Defining Terrorism (Christian Science Monitor - Jenkins)
      "What is terrorism? Consensus has been elusive. But now that the United States is officially at war with terrorism, definition is crucial."

      "The term has been applied promiscuously to all forms of violence. But to get beyond propaganda, terrorism must be defined according to the quality of the act itself, not the identity of the perpetrators or the nature of their cause. An act is not terrorism simply because one opposes the cause, or because someone labeled 'terrorist' carries it out. Nor is an act not terrorism because a cause is deemed noble. Ends do not justify means."

      "That said, what are the qualities of terrorism?"

      "What sets terrorism apart from other violence is this: terrorism consists of acts carried out in a dramatic way to attract publicity and create an atmosphere of alarm that goes far beyond the actual victims. Indeed, the identity of the victims is often secondary or irrelevant to the terrorists who aim their violence at the people watching. This distinction between actual victims and a target audience is the hallmark of terrorism and separates it from other modes of armed conflict. Terrorism is theater." 11-05

  7. -Five Ways to Improve Airport Security (U.S. News)
      "Kelly Moore was on the staff of the 9/11 Commission and the former deputy program manager of the Terrorist Interdiction Program at the Department of State. She is a co-author of 9/11 and Terrorist Travel."

      "Here is a list of five things we ought to be doing to improve air security." 11-10

  8. -Four Men Convicted in Plot to Bomb Synagogues (New York Times)
      "Prosecutors said the men, who all lived in Newburgh, N.Y., willingly cooperated with an informer working for the Federal Bureau of Investigation who posed as a terrorist and supplied the men with inert bombs and Stinger missile tubes."

      "On May 20, 2009, the men were arrested in the Riverdale section of the Bronx after they planted the bombs in cars outside two synagogues." 10-10

  9. -Terrorism Attempt Stopped on Plane (New York Times)
      "A Nigerian man tried to ignite an explosive device aboard a trans-Atlantic Northwest Airlines flight as the plane prepared to land in Detroit on Friday, in an incident the United States believes was 'an attempted act of terrorism,' according to a White House official who declined to be identified."

      "The device, described by officials as a mixture of powder and liquid, failed to fully detonate." 12-09

  10. -Top Al Qaeda Leaders Killed by Obama Teams (ABC News)
      "The list of senior terrorists killed during the Obama presidency is fairly extensive."

      "There’s Osama bin Laden, of course, killed in May." 02-12

  11. -Torture Report: 6 Findings (Christian Science Monitor)
      "The Senate report takes great issue with claims that the intelligence gleaned from enhanced interrogation techniques helped to save US lives. Again and again, the report found that when subjected to these torture techniques, CIA detainees said whatever their captors wanted to hear. This meant faulty intelligence and wasted time for US intelligence officers tracking down false leads." 12-14

  12. -Torture Report: Timeline on Interrogation (
      "The CIA’s controversial interrogation and detention programs lasted from 2002 to 2007, but the full timeline of how it developed and how it ended goes longer than that."

      "Here’s a look at the key dates in the report." 12-14

  13. 01-24-07 New Military Weapon: Ray Gun (MSNBC News)
      "The military's new weapon is a ray gun that shoots a beam that makes people feel as if they will catch fire." 01-07

  14. 04-01-09 Airport Security Using Strip Check (MSNBC News)
      "New airport security scanners could become a popular alternative to body searches, but have also prompted some privacy concerns."

      "Whole-body imaging technologies can see through clothing to reveal metallic and non-metallic objects, including weapons or plastic explosives. They also reveal a person's silhouette and the outlines of underwear." 04-09

  15. 09-28-03 Basic Strategies to Combat Terrorism (Defense and the National Interest - Hayden)
      Recommends eight actions to prepare for terrorism or fourth generation warfare. 9-03

  16. 9-11 Failures in Security and Truth (
      "The nation’s top-down command structure was abysmally ill-prepared to respond to the surprise attacks of September 11, 2001 and, as the bungled response to the much-anticipated Hurricane Katrina underscored, remains a bureaucratic hindrance to the “on the ground” way in which crises are actually experienced and most effectively addressed. Equally important, misleading accounts by the administration and the military of key aspects of the air and ground response on 9/11 have set the country up to fail in response to future threats."

      "The Ground Truth draws on Farmer’s experience with the 9/11 Commission as well as recently declassified tapes and transcripts to show a disturbing disconnect between what those in charge of the country’s security knew and what was actually happening on the ground and in the skies. Dean Farmer, one of the principal authors of the 9/11 Commission Report, includes critical evidence omitted in recent reports by the Departments of Defense and Transportation. The Commission, believing that civilian and military officials had not been completely forthright in their information to Congress, the media, and the Commission itself about significant aspects of 9/11, had requested the reports." 09-09

  17. Accused Americans and Alleged Ringleader Charged (CBS News)
      "Five American-born men of Yemeni descent accused of operating a terrorist cell linked to al Qaeda were arraigned Saturday and charged with providing material support to terrorists."

      "Their arrests followed the capture in Pakistan of Ramzi Binalshibh, an alleged al Qaeda ringleader." 9-02

  18. Afghanistan - Bush Asks Children for Help (Awesome Library)
      President Bush is asking children to contribute to prevent a disaster to the children of Afghanistan. 10-01

  19. Al Qaeda - Origins and Links (BBC News)
      "The organisation grew out of the network of Arab volunteers who had gone to Afghanistan in the 1980s to fight under the banner of Islam against Soviet Communism."

      "During the anti-Soviet jihad Bin Laden and his fighters received American and Saudi Arabian funding. Some analysts believe Bin Laden himself had security training from the CIA." 12-03

  20. Bush Favors Long Term Solution (BBC News)
      Suggests that President Bush is planning to attack specific targets, while continuing to build support with other countries to solve the terrorist problem long term. Colin Powell, Dick Cheney, and Condolezza Rice are supporting this approach. The alternative approach, proposed by Paul Wolfowitz, is to fight terrorism alone with massive military strikes into several countries now. 9-01

  21. Converting al Qaeda Agents Into U.S. Agents in the U.S. (Time)
      Provides details on how the U.S. Department of Justice is converting al Qaeda supporters in the U.S. into agents for the U.S. government." 6-03

  22. Countries Joining US Coalition Against Terrorism (
      Provides a map, with comments, on countries joining the USA in its war against terrorism. 9-01

  23. Editorial - Countering Terrorism from the Middle East (Awesome Library - Adams)
      Argues that two problems must be addressed in order for the USA to reduce the long term problem of terrorism from the Middle East. The primary two enablers for terrorism are nations harboring terrorists and nations fostering anti-American attitudes. In addition, two more problems, if handled well, could actually lead to a new era of cooperation and long term peace. The two problems are US foreign policies that hurt Muslim nations and conflicts between Fundamentalist Muslim values and Western values. Provides recommendations for each problem. 10-01

  24. Editorial - Who Is Winning the War on Terrorism? (BBC News - Gardner)
      "If we were to look at this purely in terms of military gains the answer would be obvious. The US has swiftly toppled two governments it considered to be rogue regimes - first in Afghanistan, then in Iraq. The Pentagon's supremacy on the battlefield is unrivalled and unstoppable. Its troops are holding down a sort of peace in both countries."

      "However, terrorist attacks have not stopped and there is good reason for this, according to Gardner. "Victories on the battlefield or in the interrogation rooms are meaningless if terror networks can continue to recruit from a large wellspring of discontented youth."

      "And that is exactly what is happening. The wave of horror and sympathy for the victims that spread across much of the Arab and Muslim world after 11 September has long ago changed to something else." "America is seen as having capitalised on those attacks by trying to 'conquer' Muslim countries - Afghanistan and Iraq."

      "But there is also now a growing conviction that the Bush administration has acquired a taste for regime change and will not stop at Baghdad. Threats to Syria and Iran to change their policies only confirm that view." "Against this backdrop it is hardly surprising that the US - and its close ally Britain - are losing the battle for Arab and Muslim hearts and minds." 9-03

  25. Evidence Against Bin Laden (BBC News)
      Provides British (UK) conclusions about the involvement of Osama bin Laden, al-Queda, and the Taliban in terrorist acts, based on intelligence the British government has obtained. Also spelled al Quida and Taleban. 11-01

  26. FBI Reorganized to Fight Terrorism (CNN)
      Reports on the reorganization of the FBI to fight terrorism. 5-02

  27. Fighting Terrorism (New York Times - Annan)
      Provides a response to the September 11th attack against the USA from the Secretary-General of the United Nations. 12-01

  28. Geneva Convention on Treatment of Prisoners of War (University of Minnesota)
      Provides the rules, adopted by most countries, for treatment of prisoners of war. Killing, torturing, starving, injuring, mistreating, or failing to provide medical assistance for prisoners of war is a war crime.

  29. Hidden War in Afghanistan (Guardian Unlimited - Burke)
      Describes the conflicting interests of different nations trying to influence the war in Afghanistan. Describes the chief intelligence agency of Pakistan, who trained and supported the Taliban, as still very loyal to the Taliban. Accuses the agency, the ISI, of continuing to support the Taliban by letting Taliban supporters through the border to Afghanistan and possibly hurting the efforts of the Northern Alliance to unite against the Taliban. This is the hidden war. 11-01

  30. How We Handle Terror Scares (MSNBC News)
      "Successfully coping with a stressful episode actually produces rewards in the brain, said Ki Ann Goosens, a neuroscientist at MIT's McGovern Institute for Brain Research who specializes in the study of fear, anxiety and stress." 10-10

  31. Institute: Terrorism a Symptom from Poverty, Disease, and Pollution (
      " 'Acts of terrorism like the September 11, 2001, attacks on the U.S. are a worst-case symptom of global insecurity brought about by the festering interplay among poverty, infectious disease, and environmental degradation—the true "axis of evil,' according to the Worldwatch Institute in its State of the World 2005 report."

      "Global poverty can be cut in half by 2015 and eliminated by 2025 if the world’s richest countries including the United States, Japan and Germany more than double aid to the poorest countries, hundreds of development experts concluded in a report Monday."

      "Instead of tackling the social and environmental issues embraced by the MDGs and the WSSD targets, governments' global funding priority in recent years has been the world's militaries, which receive the equivalent of nearly a trillion U.S. dollars annually, according to the Worldwatch report."

      "By contrast, the MDGs could be achieved with additional funding of 50 billion dollars each year—money currently available in 'outdated, ineffective, or otherwise wasteful' military programs, according to the report."

      " 'Do we understand that by doing things like reducing poverty, improving water sufficiency, making sure arable land is not so totally exhausted that food security becomes a huge issue, we also address the stability and security of the world's nations?" Renner said. 'In Washington [D.C.], that's a very hard sell.' " 1-05

  32. Interpol (CBS News)
      "Its mission is to give operational support to police departments around the world, by exchanging intelligence, tracking fugitives, and providing language and legal assistance in fighting crimes that cross international borders. Its staff is made up of police officers on loan from 58 different countries."

      "It's not glamorous work, but last year Interpol played a role in 4,500 arrests, including a war criminal from the former Yugoslavia and an al Qaeda terrorist connected to the Madrid train bombing." 10-07

  33. Islam's Silent Majority Needs To Speak Up Now (Christian Science Monitor - Ford)
      Discusses the failure of the large majority of Muslims to speak out forcefully against extremism in Islam. Mattson states, "who has the greatest duty to stop violence committed by Muslims against innocent non-Muslims in the name of Islam?" "The answer, obviously is Muslims."11-01

  34. More Advanced than a Polygraph (
      "In a study published in the journal Psychophysiology, psychologists John Meixner and Peter Rosenfeld used electrodes to measure the brain waves of 29 undergraduates who had been told to mock-plan either a terrorist bombing in Houston in July, or a vacation in a different city in a different month. The researchers then presented the students with the names of various cities, methods of terrorist attack and dates. As they did so, they scanned the subjects' brains with electroencephalography (EEG), which records electrical activity along the scalp produced by the firing of neurons. They watched for a particular brainwave — dubbed the P300, because it fires every 300 milliseconds — which signals recognition of something familiar." 08-10

  35. Muslim Countries Against Terrorism (CNN - Jones)
      Describes the reactions of key Muslim countries to proposals by the USA to fight terrorism. 9-01

  36. Muslim Rage (Awesome Library)
      Summarizes an article in The Atlantic, written by Dr. Bernard Lewis, about Fundamentalist Muslim rage. 10-01

  37. Muslim Rage (Christian Science Monitor - Ford)
      There can be no justification for killing innocent civilians, such as on September 11th. However, it is important for the citizens of the USA to understand how people in the Middle East regard the United States as the USA works to fight terrorism globally.

      Provides personal stories of Muslim families in the Middle East affected by American foreign policies and military interventions. "Trying to root out terrorism without re-plowing the soil in which it grows - which means rethinking the policies that breed anti-American sentiment - is unlikely to succeed, say ordinary Middle Easterners and some of their leaders." ''There is only one way for America to be a friend of Islam,' says Ahmed. 'And that is if they consider our lives to be as precious as their own.' 10-01

  38. Muslim Rage (The Atlantic - Lewis)
      A tiny percent of Muslims are terrorists, just as a tiny percent of Christians or Jews are terrorists. However, there is a growing number of Muslims, especially fundamentalists, that are very angry with the United States. Bernard Lewis, the Middle Eastern scholar, summarizes why so many Muslims, especially fundamentalists, are so intensely anti-American. Editor's Note - Dr. Lewis appeared on the Charlie Rose television show (10-18-01) and pointed out that vast numbers of Middle Eastern Muslims are also very pro-United States. He gave the example of the tens of thousands of Iranians who publicly demonstrated their grief, sorrow, and support for the United States because of the September 11th disaster--despite strong orders from the Iranian government not to do so. Also called 911, 9-11, or 9/11. 10-01

  39. Muslim Rage and Democracy (National Endowment for Democracy and the Johns Hopkins University Press - Wright)
      Provides Robin Wright's analysis. 12-01

  40. Muslim Rage and Europe (Oregonian - Friedman)
      Provides an essay arguing that it is the loss of dignity that has caused young middle-class men from the Middle East to turn to leaders who turn them from Islam to violence. 12-01

  41. Muslims Against Terrorism - Singapore (Straits Times Asia - Osman)
      According to Osman, the supreme authority of Muslims in Singapore stated 'There is no war against Islam and the war is against terrorism affecting Muslims and non-Muslims.' 10-01

  42. Pentagon Hires Public Relations Firm (Guardian Unlimited - Day)
      Discusses the hiring of a public relations firm to help the Pentagon make its case to the world regarding counter-terrorism efforts. (The Guardian is a British newspaper.) 10-01

  43. Role of Media in Terrorism (Guardian Unlimited)
      "Journalists must urgently debate whether their coverage of crises such as the hostage-taking in Iraq is driving terrorists to commit ever more outrageous atrocities, a top BBC executive said last night."

      Editor's Note: The Awesome Library does not cover hostage-taking activities because coverage is necessary for terrorists to "gain full value" from their hostage-taking. Further, the Awesome Library staff strongly encourage other media not to cover hostage-taking events.

  44. Roots of Militant Extremism (BBC News - Symon)
      Extremists "blamed the western idea of the separation of religion and politics for the decline of Muslim societies." "This, they believed, could only be corrected through a return to Islam in its traditional form, in which society was governed by a strict code of Islamic law." "Al-Banna and Maudoudi breathed new life into the concept of jihad as a holy war to end the foreign occupation of Muslim lands."

      Editor's Note - Historians have described Muslim societies during the peak of the Ottoman Empire as very tolerant, in sharp contrast to the descriptions by the militants. 11-02

  45. Saudi Arabia and al Qaeda (Weekly Standard - Wurmser)
      Provides a history of the relationship between Iraq, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Wahhabism, Osama bin Laden, and the al Qaeda terrorist network. 10-01

  46. Sen. Graham Accuses Saudi Government of Involvement in 9-11 (MSNBC News)
      "In his new book, Graham claims the president coddled the Saudis and pursued a war against Saddam Hussein that only diverted resources from the more important fight against Al Qaeda. Graham was furious when the White House blacked out 28 pages of the inquiry's final report that dealt with purported Saudi links to the 9/11 plot." 9-04

  47. Tape of Bin Laden - Arabian Reaction (BBC News)
      Provides reactions from Arabians after seeing a videotape of Osama bin Laden stating that he had been involved in planning the September attack against the USA. 12-01

  48. Tape of Bin Laden - Arabian Reaction ( - MacLeod)
      Describes how a videotape of Osama bin Laden stating that he had been involved in planning the September attack against the USA, combined with the fall of the Taliban, will probably affect followers of bin Laden. 12-01

  49. Terrorism Expert: Federal Authorities Undermine Trust? (CBS News)
      "The disconnect between security officials in New York and Washington over the alleged subway bomb plot is reminiscent of pre-Sept. 11 days and has left many people confused."

      " 'I think I would trust the mayor and the police commissioner,' Neil Livingstone, a security and terrorism expert from Washington, told The Early Show co-anchor Harry Smith Friday morning." 10-05

  50. Terrorism Glossary (
      Provides definitions of key words related to combating terrorism. 9-04

  51. Terrorism Mentality Clashes With Small-Town Ways (MSNBC News)
      "Federal law will make county treasurer Paula Schneider do something that would be plain rude on the streets of this little town: treat friends as strangers." 8-05

  52. Terrorism and the Peace Process in the Middle East (Time)
      Discusses the relationship between efforts to reduce international terrorism, lead by the USA, and the peace process between Israel and the Palestinians. 11-01

  53. Terrorist Attacks Update - International (
      "The MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base represents years of collaborative effort by many partners. Though we believe this to be the most extensive and user-friendly system of its kind, any resource spanning over 35 years of data will contain oversights and omissions."

      The MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base uses these definitions:

      "Terrorism: Terrorism is violence, or the threat of violence, calculated to create an atmosphere of fear and alarm. These acts are designed to coerce others into actions they would not otherwise undertake, or refrain from actions they desired to take. All terrorist acts are crimes. Many would also be violation of the rules of war if a state of war existed. This violence or threat of violence is generally directed against civilian targets. The motives of all terrorists are political, and terrorist actions are generally carried out in a way that will achieve maximum publicity. Unlike other criminal acts, terrorists often claim credit for their acts. Finally, terrorist acts are intended to produce effects beyond the immediate physical damage of the cause, having long-term psychological repercussions on a particular target audience. The fear created by terrorists may be intended to cause people to exaggerate the strengths of the terrorist and the importance of the cause, to provoke governmental overreaction, to discourage dissent, or simply to intimidate and thereby enforce compliance with their demands."

      "Terrorist Group: A collection of individuals belonging to an autonomous non-state or subnational revolutionary or anti-governmental movement who are dedicated to the use of violence to achieve their objectives. Such an entity is seen as having at least some structural and command and control apparatus that, no matter how loose or flexible, nonetheless provides an overall organizational framework and general strategic direction. This definition is meant to include contemporary religion-motivated and apocalyptic groups and other movements that seek theological justification or divine sanction for their acts of violence." 9-04

  54. Times Square Bombing Attempt: What If? (
      "If you wanted to do a lot of damage with a well-rigged car bomb, the junction of West 45th Street and Broadway in midtown Manhattan, where Times Square narrows into an asphalt bottleneck, would be the place to pick." 05-10

  55. Treatment of Suspects (Amnesty International)
      Argues that suspects that have not been charged with crimes in the September 11th disaster should not be abused or lose basic human rights. Also called 911, 9-11, or 9/11. 10-01

  56. U.S. and Afghanistan Priorities Different ( - Karon)
      Describes differences between American priorities and Afghan priorities regarding the Taliban. The Americans want the Taliban leaders captured and the Afghans are willing to have the leaders change sides and go free, an Afghan tradition. 1-02

  1. Communication With Children in Other Countries (Friendship Through Education)
      President Bush asks that each child in America find a Muslim child in the Middle East to communicate with to improve understanding between our two cultures. This is the program he recommends. 10-01


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