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Making Biodiesel
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  1. Algae as an Alternative Biofuel
  2. Biomass
  3. Diesel Vehicles
  4. Ethanol
  5. Fuel Efficiency for Autos
  6. Soil Carbon Sequestration
  7. Soil Carbon Sequestration
  1. -08-12-08 Biodiesel From Engineered Bugs (
      "Using genetically modified bugs for fermentation is essentially the same as using natural bacteria to produce ethanol, although the energy-intensive final process of distillation is virtually eliminated because the bugs excrete a substance that is almost pump-ready." 08-08

  1. -Biodiesel Bus Available Now (
      "Biodiesel, according to the Project BioBus Web site, 'is a safe, renewable, clean burning, domestically-produced fuel made from vegetable oils (such as soy and rapeseed) that can be used in existing diesel engines without modifications.' This eco-friendly fuel is refined from vegetable oil, including fryer oil from fast-food restaurants, by combining it with lye and methanol." 10-04

  2. -Biodiesel Fuel for Vehicles (
      Discusses the strengths and weaknesses of biodiesel fuels as a replacement for gasoline or diesel engines.

      "Biodiesel is non-flammable, and in contrast to petroleum diesel it is non-explosive, with a flash point of 150 °C for biodiesel as compared to 64 °C for petrodiesel. Unlike petrodiesel, it is biodegradable and non-toxic, and it significantly reduces toxic and other emissions when burned as a fuel."

      "Biodiesel reduces emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) by approximately 50% and carbon dioxide by 78.45% on a net basis because the carbon in biodiesel emissions is recycled from carbon that was already in the atmosphere, rather than being new carbon from petroleum that was sequestered in the earth's crust."

      "Biodiesel does produce more NOx emissions than petrodiesel, but these emissions can be reduced through the use of catalytic converters. Petrodiesel vehicles have generally not included catalytic converters because the sulfur content in that fuel destroys the devices, but biodiesel does not contain sulfur."

      "It is one of the most realistic candidates to replace fossil fuels as the world's primary transportation energy source, because it is a renewable fuel that can replace petrodiesel in current engines and can be transported and sold using today's infrastructure."

      "Current worldwide production of vegetable oil and animal fat is not enough to replace liquid fossil fuel use. Some environmental groups, notably NRDC object to the vast amount of farming and the resulting over-fertilization, pesticide use, and land use conversion that would be needed to produce the additional vegetable oil."

      "The estimated transportation fuel and home heating oil use in the United States is about 230,000 million gallons. (Briggs, 2004) Waste vegetable oil and animal fats would not be enough to meet this demand. In the United States, estimated production of vegetable oil for all uses is about 33,000 million pounds (15,000,000 t) or 4,500 million US gallons." Although soybean oil is most commonly used for biodiesel in the U.S., algae may supply 200 times more oil per acre, according to the article. 10-05

  3. -Biofuel Production Disappointing (
      "A federal appeals court has ruled that the Environmental Protection Agency is overestimating the amount of fuel that can be produced from grasses, wood and other nonfood plants in an effort to promote a fledgling biofuels industry."

      "At issue is a 2007 renewable fuels law that requires a certain amount of those types of fuels, called cellulosic biofuels, to be mixed in with gasoline each year. Despite annual EPA projections that the industry would produce small amounts of the biofuels, none of that production materialized."

      "There have been high hopes in Washington that the cellulosic industry would take off as farmers, food manufacturers and others blamed the skyrocketing production of corn ethanol fuel for higher food prices. Those groups said the diversion of corn crops for fuel production raised prices for animal feed and eventually for consumers at the grocery store. Lawmakers hoped that nonfood sources like switchgrass or corn husks could be used instead, though the industry hadn’t yet gotten off the ground." 01-13

  4. Algae as Biofuel (
      "Progress in the field is slow. Now, however, several American companies are vying to become the first to market cellulosic ethanol, aided in part by a new U.S. tax credit worth $1.01 per gallon for makers of such biofuels. That state aid will help defray high initial costs, and make cellulosic more competitive with oil. At Mascoma, Lynd is focused on finding and using bacteria that can digest cellulose and spit out ethanol in a single step — he calls it consolidated bioprocessing. It could reduce production costs so dramatically, he believes Mascoma will eventually be able to churn out ethanol more cheaply than gas, even without government subsidies." 01-10

  5. Algae for Biofuel and Ethanol (Popular
      "Given the right conditions, algae can double its volume overnight. Unlike other biofuel feedstocks, such as soy or corn, it can be harvested day after day. Up to 50 percent of an alga’s body weight is comprised of oil, whereas oil-palm trees—currently the largest producer of oil to make biofuels—yield just about 20 percent of their weight in oil."

      GreenFuel hopes its pilot plant will see initial yields of 8000 gallons of biodiesel and 5000 gallons of ethanol per acre of algae." 07-08

  6. Animal Meat as Biofuel (
      "In Britain, big supermarkets send unsold and expired meat to companies that convert it into fuel to heat homes. Since 2001, the German biofuel company Saria takes greasy animal fats and cooking oil from caterers and restaurants and then turns it into renewable energy used for power stations and manufacturing plants. Saria found using animal oil instead of vegetable oil is not only a cheaper alternative, but it also produces less harmful emissions, delivers better engine efficiency and reduces noise pollution."

      "Corporate America is getting into the animal-based biofuel market as well, thanks to U.S. government subsidies. Like Europe, the U.S. has a law that bans dumping raw meat into landfills. In July 2007, energy company, ConocoPhillips teamed up with meat giant Tyson to make biofuel from chicken and pork fats that would otherwise have been added into makeup, pet foods or soaps. Although biofuel produced from animal fat is better suited to fueling industrial boilers than cars, Tyson and ConocoPhillips have come up with a fuel for the 'on-road' market." 11-09

  7. Biodiesel Uses and Laws (
      Provides a comprehensive discussion of biodiesel and Includes relevant laws supporting use of biodiesel, state by state. 09-14

  8. Biodiesel-Compatible Cars List (
      Lists cars that are compatible with biodiesel fuel. 02-06

  9. Bioenergy (
      "GCB Bioenergy exists to promote understanding of the interface between biological sciences and the production of fuels directly from plants, algae and waste. All aspects of current and potential biofuel production, from forestry, crop production, enzymatic deconstruction and microbial fuel synthesis to implications for biodiversity, ecosystem services, economics, policy and global change will be included." 01-09

  10. Carbon-Negative Biofuel (
      "Imagine this. The year is 2015. An innovative automaker has teamed up with a novel type of energy company - a negative emissions producer. They make the amazing claim that by buying their efficient car and using their particular type of energy, you will be fighting climate change each time you drive the vehicle. You will not merely be 'reducing' your carbon emissions (which is old world language). Instead you will in fact be taking carbon emissions from the past out of the atmosphere. You will be cleaning up old gas guzzlers' emissions." 01-09

  11. Corn Biofuel Causes Food Prices to Rise (ABC News)
      "Food prices worldwide have risen dramatically in the past few years, due in part to a similarly dramatic rise in the amount of corn used for ethanol production in the United States. Now, in an effort to make food less expensive, experts are calling for limits on ethanol production, subsidies for corn, and more incentives for biofuels made from nonfood sources."

      "From 2001 to 2006, the price of food increased each year by an average of only 2.5 percent. According to the World Bank, the situation worldwide is more dire: food prices have nearly doubled over the past three years. That's erased a decade of economic gains for the poor in some countries." 01-10

  12. How Biodiesel Is Made (
      "Biodiesel is the name of a clean burning alternative fuel, produced from domestic, renewable resources. Biodiesel contains no petroleum, but it can be blended at any level with petroleum diesel to create a biodiesel blend. It can be used in compression-ignition (diesel) engines with little or no modifications. Biodiesel is simple to use, biodegradable, nontoxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics."

      "Biodiesel is made through a chemical process called transesterification whereby the glycerin is separated from the fat or vegetable oil. The process leaves behind two products -- methyl esters (the chemical name for biodiesel) and glycerin (a valuable byproduct usually sold to be used in soaps and other products)." 10-04

  13. How Engines Work (
      Describes how the following types of engines worK: Diesel Two-stroke Engines, Car Engines, Two-stroke Engines, Gas Turbine Engines, Rotary Engines, Rocket Engines, Stirling Engines, and Steam Engines. Also describes how oil refining works. 10-04

  14. Navy Presses Forward With Biofuels (Voice of America News)
      "Over the last few months, the navy has been showcasing how biofuels can transform the military and eventually lead what Navy Secretary Ray Mabus hopes will be a transition away from energy sources in unstable parts of the world."

      " 'The main reason we are moving toward alternative energy in navy marine corps is to make us better war fighters, is to reduce our vulnerability on imported fossil fuel,' he stated. '(To) Make sure we have energy security and energy independence in the United States military, United States Navy.' " 07-12

  15. Using Biodiesel in the Winter (
      "Like petroleum diesel fuel, biodiesel clouds when the weather gets cold, filling with little crystals of wax that can clog the fuel filter. When it gets colder still the biodiesel gels -- sets solid and won't flow or pour." 10-04

  16. Using Waste Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Replacement Fuel - Safety (
      "Wear proper protective gloves, apron, and eye protection and do not inhale any vapors. Methanol can cause blindness and death, and you don't even have to drink it, it's absorbed through the skin. Sodium hydroxide can cause severe burns and death. Together these two chemicals form sodium methoxide. This is an extremely caustic chemical. These are dangerous chemicals -- treat them as such!"

      Editor's Note: Awesome Library does not recommend making biodiesel fuel. 10-04

  17. Where to Buy Biodiesel (
      Provides locations for buying biodiesel fuel. 01-13


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