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  1. Biochar from Biomass
  2. Biodiesel
  3. Biomass Kilns
  4. Conversion from Coal Power to Biomass
  5. Ethanol
  6. Switchgrass or Prairie Grass
  1. -Gasification Compared to Incineration (Biochar Stoves)
      Heating without oxygen (gasification) can produce a pure syngas resulting from a chemical process. A valuable char byproduct can also be produced through the process. Heating with oxygen (incineration), in contrast, can result in significant pollution and ashes. Gasification is produced at around 600 degrees Celsius (a little over 1100 Fahrenheit). 02-13

  2. Low-Tech Charcoal (TED)
      Describes efforts of Amy Smith to develop low-tech biomass fuels that do not pollute. 04-10

  1. -04-13-10 Europe Finds Clean Energy in Trash (New York Times)
      "Far cleaner than conventional incinerators, this new type of plant converts local trash into heat and electricity. Dozens of filters catch pollutants, from mercury to dioxin, that would have emerged from its smokestack only a decade ago." 04-10

  1. -American Food Waste (NBC News)
      "The best estimate is that 40 percent of food in this country is never eaten."

      "The sheer waste is bad enough, a mindless squandering of calories, nutrition, energy and water. But that uneaten food also rots in landfills, generating as much as a quarter of this country’s emissions of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas."

      "This trend is relatively new. Americans waste half again as much food as we did in the 1970s. And systemic food waste and rates of obesity have climbed together."

      Editor's Note: Food waste can be used as biomass fuel for cost-effective energy production and to create biochar to improve agricultural land. 10-12

  2. -Biomass Resources in the United States (Union of Concerned Scientists) star
      "This UCS analysis focuses on the four primary non-food sources of biomass — energy crops, agricultural residues, waste materials, and forest biomass — and details the amount of each type of biomass that could be sustainably produced and utilized in the United States without compromising the fertility of agricultural soils, displacing land needed to grow our food, or threatening the health of our farms and forests." 12-12

  3. -Climate Change: What We Can Do (Evaluation and Development Institute)
      "Earth's climate became very stable 10,000 years ago, allowing for agriculture for the first time. Our stable climate arose from a balance of three ingredients:

      -Greenhouse gases
      -Ocean currents and
      -Polar ice

      Greenhouse gases provided a stable temperature to allow ocean currents to mix heat and cold around the globe and to maintain a relatively constant amount of polar ice.

      We now have 1/3 more CO2 in the air than we had only 150 years ago--and CO2 stays in the atmosphere for hundreds of years. The extra carbon keeps more heat in the air. The extra heat is absorbed by polar ice, soil, and the oceans. The ice over the Arctic Ocean is expected to be gone during summers within 5-10 years. Instead of ice over the Arctic Ocean reflecting heat, the Arctic Ocean will absorb heat. This will slow the ocean currents even more--they already are slowing because of the change in climate.

      When the ocean currents stop and the Arctic ice melts, we will have a climate catastrophe that can be expected to last thousands of years. Permafrost in Russia and other regions will melt, releasing gigantic amounts of carbon and methane stored in the soil. The release will trigger even more extreme climate."

      "Only one cost-effective solution has been found for quickly reducing the carbon in the air:"

      "Each year we must convert enough biomass (organic waste) into biochar (charcoal) to extract at least 7 gigatons of carbon from the air and place it in our soils." 08-09

  4. -Coal Companies Turn to Waste Wood to Meet Emission Standards (New York Times)
      "Even as the Environmental Protection Agency considers requiring existing coal-fired power plants to cut their carbon dioxide output, some utilities have started to use a decidedly low-tech additive that accomplishes that goal: wood."

      "Minnesota Power, which once generated almost all of its power from coal and is now trying to convert to one-third renewables and one-third natural gas, found that co-firing with wood was a quick way to move an old plant partly to the renewable category."

      " 'We’re finding an emissions improvement benefit, and an economic benefit,' because the wood is cheaper than coal, said Allan S. Rudeck Jr., Minnesota Power’s vice president for strategy and planning. One boiler at the company’s Rapids Energy Center, near Grand Rapids, Minn., has run at up to 90 percent wood." 11-13

  5. -Current and Projected Use of Biomass Compared to Other Fuels (New York Times)
      "Through the first century of U.S. history, wood was our primary fuel. And while it was long ago displaced by fossil fuels; wood, farm waste, and other biomass remain vital sources of primary energy for heating, electricity generation, and lately, as a new source of transportation fuel. Since 2002, biomass’ role has grown significantly, lifted by rising demand for of corn, soybeans and similar farm-grown feedstocks to produce biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel. The E.I.A. anticipates production of these renewable resources will rise, by 42 percent by 2040 to 5.6 quadrillion BTUs." 08-14

  6. -EPA's Greenhouse Gas Tailoring Rules (
      "In its Clean Air Act Tailoring Rule published last June, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulated emissions from the combustion of biomass the same as emissions from the combustion of fossil fuel."

      "EPA’s Tailoring Rule reverses the government’s precedent and policy regarding biomass emissions. It is well established government policy that carbon emitted in the combustion of forest biomass—unlike conventional fossil fuels—comes from CO2 that was recently removed from the air by the forest, thus resulting in a 'carbon neutral' cycle." 12-12

  7. -Germany Has Built a Clean Energy Economy (Bloomberg News) star
      "Twenty-five percent of Germany's electricity now comes from solar, wind and biomass. A third of the world's installed solar capacity is found in Germany, a nation that gets roughly the same amount of sunlight as Alaska. A whopping 65 percent of the country's total renewable power capacity is now owned by individuals, cooperatives and communities, leaving Germany's once all-powerful utilities with just a sliver (6.5 percent) of this burgeoning sector." 12-12

  8. -One Last Chance to Save Mankind (
      "For those that don’t know who James Lovelock is here’s the one sentence bio: Originator of the Gaia hypothesis, chemist, did work on atmospheric chlorofluorocarbons which eventually led them from being banned, advocate of nuclear power. Which is to say, that when James Lovelock says humanity only has one chance left not to get annihilated by the effects of climate change in the 21st century, it’s worth shutting up and listening to what the man says." 10-10

  9. -Rapeseed as a Biomass Fuel (State Energy Conservation Office)
      "Canola is the edible version of rapeseed, the highest yielding oil source in the U.S., at 122 gallons per acre. Soy yields 46 gallons per acre."

      "Once termed a Cinderella crop, canola, a Texas native plant, is now gaining recognition as a biodiesel fuel, valued for its high oil content, increased lubricity for engines, better fuel pump response, excellent diesel engine wear protection, and low levels of saturated fats which means improved performance in cold climates." 12-12

  10. -Study: Conversion of a Coal-Fired Power Station to Biomass Pyrolysis ( star
      This scientific study shows that "cheap biomass can be used for co-firing in existing fossil fuel power stations without the danger of corrosion, deposition, and emission problems." 06-14

  11. -UK Supermarket Plans to Use Biomass to Supply Energy (Huffington Post)
      "Biffa then converts it into biogas, and this biogas is then burned to meet the energy needs of a location in the town of Cannock." 09-14

  12. Aviation Ready to Move to Biofuel (
      "Cost, not technology, is the rub. Biofuels have the potential to reduce the industry’s carbon footprint by 80%, according to the International Air Transport Association, but that works only if the biofuel industry can scale up to commercial production and scale down prices. U.S. airlines guzzle 18 billion gal. of jet fuel annually—just shy of 10% of the U.S.’s total fossil-fuel use—at a cost of $50 billion, or 25% to 35% of their operating costs. Switching to biofuels would increase jet-fuel costs substantially. When Alaska Airlines debuted its first commercial biofuel-powered flight late last year, it paid six times the cost of traditional jet fuel. United’s biofuel was four times as costly." 09-12

  13. Biochar Methodology for Emission Reductions Near Completion (
      "The Climate Trust is leading the team effort funded by Blue Moon Fund to develop the Emission Reductions from Biochar Projects. The methodology completed the public comment phase in November 2013, with a tremendous response. The next and final phase before approval is the scientific peer review."

      "This methodology provides a way to quantify the carbon that can be captured in biomass during the process of burning in a low-oxygen environment, referred to as pyrolysis. Biochar has the potential to contain the carbon that would otherwise be released in the atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. Under this methodology, the biochar is intended for use as a soil amendment, which when combined with a high nutrient material such as compost, can not only trap carbon long term (over 100 years) in the soil, but also greatly improve soil fertility, and even water holding capacity" 02-14

  14. Biomass Comparison (Biomass Gasification)
      Provides chart that compares the economics of concentrating photovoltaic, concentrating solar power, wind turbines/wind farm versus a biomass gasification plant. Claims that the cost per 100 MW power plant is half as much as the other types of plants. Also claims that biomass itself may generate as much as $30/ton to $80/ton. 05-09

  15. Biomass Cook Stoves (
      "Biomass typically consists of organic materials like wood, crop waste, or animal dung, and for many households in places like India, is the main source of fuel for activities like cooking. Developed at the Engines and Energy Conversion Laboratory at Colorado State University, the cook stoves were engineered to burn traditionally used biomass materials more efficiently." 05-09

  16. Biomass Drying (
      Provides guidelines for drying biomass. 06-09

  17. Biomass Energy from Methane (New York Times)
      "The process runs at a relatively low temperature, 1,750 degrees Fahrenheit, far too low for nitrogen oxides to form. It destroys other stray but troublesome pollutants that may be present in the landfill gas, like volatile organics, and it produces electricity. And company executives say that it does so at low concentrations of methane, 1.5 percent. (Ordinary pipeline gas is about 80 percent methane.)" 01-12

  18. Biomass Power Plants (Arizona Sonora News Service)
      "Biomass is a favorable form of energy for Arizona because the desert eco-system is abundant in materials that can be used to create biomass. The heat is perfect weather for algae growth. Also, all desert trees can be burned and converted into biomass, according to Doug Hanchett, president of Green Organics Recycling." 02-14

  19. Biomass Power Plants (
      "Snowflake White Mountain Biomass is Arizona's largest renewable energy plant. It generates electricity through a wood-burning boiler using forest thinning (wood-waste material from the area's forest industries) and waste recycled paper fibers from an existing newsprint paper mill located adjacent to the biomass facility." 02-14

  20. Biomass Pyrolysis for Power Plants (
      Discusses uses biomass for fuel but does not consider use of the resulting char as biochar for improving soils and to sequester CO2.

  21. Biomass Usage (
      "Biomass energy comes from plants -- things like wood waste, corn kernels, or non-food 'energy' crops, which can be used to make liquid fuels, heat or electricity. Biomass accounts for roughly half of all the renewable energy produced in the United States, and we use more of it than any other country in the world."

      "Our challenge is to ensure that biomass energy is produced in ways that reduce global warming pollution, protect the environment, and do not impact the global food market. In other words, biomass energy should do the job better than the fossil fuel energy it replaces."

      "Setting standards for how we can maximize the benefits of biomass energy will help the industry continue to grow and develop profitably and sustainably. Simply turning existing waste from farms and forests into biomass energy could produce about 7,500 megawatts of power each year -- enough for every home in New England. And aggressive action to develop the best biofuels could allow America to produce the home-grown equivalent of all the oil we import from the Persian Gulf by 2050." 12-12

  22. Biomass-Fed Gasifiers, Gas Generators, and Pellet Makers (
      Awesome Library does not endorse this product but provides it as an example. 08-12

  23. Biomass-Fed, Factory-Built Gasifiers (
      Provides 10kw and 20kw units at $1 - $2 per watt. Awesome Library does not endorse this product but provides it as an example. 08-12

  24. Co-Production of Power and Biochar (
      "A nascent biochar industry is emerging in connection with biomass power technologies that coproduce electricity and char via gasification and pyrolysis." 08-13

  25. Coal Plants and Biomass (New York Times)
      "David Layzell, a professor of biology at the University of Calgary and the executive director of the Institute for Sustainable Energy, Environment and Economy, noted that most coal and cement plants could already use pulverized pellets composed of wood or agricultural waste to displace up to 5 percent of their fuel needs without significant engineering changes (though he noted that higher percentages would require some alterations to boilers and fuel storage and handling equipment)."

      "Emissions cuts from such co-firing could be substantial, Mr. Layzell said.""

      "By way of example, he pointed to the Ontario Power Generation, the Canadian province’s electric utility, which has been ordered to phase out coal by 2014. In the interim, the utility is looking to co-fire biomass pellets in two of its fossil fuel plants, potentially displacing up to 1.5 million tons of coal annually." 11-13

  26. Conversion from Oil for Fuel to Sawdust (CBS News)
      "This year marks the 30th anniversary of Longwood's sawdust-fueled heating plant, which produces about two megawatts of power - a third of the school's electricity." 07-13

  27. Conversion of Coal-Fired Plants to Biomass in Virginia (The Daily Beast)
      "A major energy company has completed one of three planned conversions of a power plant from coal to biomass in Virginia."

      "The plants operated by Dominion will primarily use leftover from nearby timbering work for the biomass fuel. The plants, which generate enough power to serve roughly 12,500 households, are expected to continuously operate. According to the company, the conversion will reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter and mercury in the environment. The conversion will replace 194,000 tons of coal at each station." 07-13

  28. Corn Waste for Generating Electricity (
      "Corn stalks and leaves, amassing 250 million tons a year, make up a third of the total solid waste produced in the United States. Currently, 90 percent of corn stover is left unused in the field. Corn stover is about 70 percent cellulose or hemicellulose, complex carbohydrates that are locked in chains. A steam explosion process releases the organic sugars and other compounds in the corn waste and these compounds can be fed to microbial fuel cells." 08-12

  29. Corn as a Biomass Fuel (
      "Any brewery, or food processing plant, that has a source of biomass available in substantial quantity should consider processing the material for recovery of its inherent energy value. In the face of ever escalating fuel costs, any method whereby these costs could be lowered or, perhaps eliminated, deserves attention. If the cost for hauling and disposal of waste is significant, then the economic advantages of waste fuel firing become even more pronounce." 08-12

  30. Costs of Biomass for Fuel (
      "Using conventional combustion technology without cogeneration, the estimated cost to generate electricity from biomass ranges from 5.2 to 6.7 cents per kilowatt-hour in Oregon and the Pacific Northwest."

      "Naturally-occurring anaerobic digestion in solid waste landfills produces methane, which can be used to generate electricity. In Oregon, generating electricity from landfill gas is cost-competitive with natural gas power generation. The estimated cost is 2.9 to 3.6 cents per kilowatt-hour. Sale of power generated from landfill gas can offset the cost of equipment needed otherwise to collect and flare methane produced in landfills."

      "The estimated cost of producing electric power from anaerobic digestion of animal manure is 3.7 to 5.4 cents per kilowatt-hour. Digester technology can be part of an integrated facility that produces electricity and heat, eliminates waste disposal and odor problems and helps to protect the environment." 06-09

  31. Costs of Biomass for Fuel (
      "The costs of biomass fuel vary considerably. At the low end are electricity production facilities located at industrial sites (such as lumber mills), where the fuel is already there, of known consistency, and essentially free (or at a negative net cost, if burning it avoids disposal costs). At the high end are facilities that must collect fuel, transport it, and process it before burning. Typical biomass fuel costs are in the range of $0 to $5 per million Btu."

      "Widely varying technologies, fuel costs, and fuel types result in wide variations in biomass electricity production costs. According to DOE estimates, a typical direct-fired biomass plant produces electricity at about 9 cents/kWh, but this varies considerably." 06-09

  32. Denmark Builds Huge Waste-to-Energy Plant (Biomass Magazine)
      "Amagerforbraending, a Copenhagen-based waste management company, is building what will be one of the largest waste-to-energy plants in Northern Europe." 07-11

  33. EPA Proposes New Wood Stove Standards (ABC News)
      "There are about 12 million wood stoves in U.S. homes, including about 9 million that are less than half as efficient as the newer stoves, according to the EPA. The agency's proposed rules would not affect stoves already in homes."

      "Proposed regulations from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency would significantly reduce the amount of particle pollution allowed from the smokestacks of new residential wood-powered heaters." 02-14

  34. Ethanol from Biomass (
      "Commercializing biomass-to-ethanol technology would also have international political ramifications, according to Datta. Producing 2.4 million barrels of ethanol per day would 'be a $40 billion per year transfer of wealth from the Middle East to our farmers,'he said. Federal funding of biomass-based ethanol should be less controversial because 'instead of six states benefiting, everyone benefits.' " 01-06

  35. How Much Thermal Energy Does the Syngas Produce? (
      "This week, city counselors in Ottawa, Ontario, unanimously approved a new waste-to-energy facility that will turn 400 metric tons of garbage per day into 21 megawatts of net electricity--enough to power about 19,000 homes." In this scenario, it takes 19 metric tons of biomass to generate a megawatt of electricity. 06-09

  36. Human Waste as Biofuel (Christian Science Monitor)
      "Gates foundation is funding effort in Ghana to turn excrement into biodiesel and methane fuels." 06-11

  37. Hybrid TLUD and Rocket Cook Stoves (
      "PlanetStove was designed to use locally purchased firewood, so unlike other available biochar-producing stoves, ours does not require villagers to re-cut their wood."

      "The PlanetStove is a hybrid. It is a fully functional TLUD, but since a TLUD stove sometimes only burns for an hour, we added a door making it similar to a “Rocket Stove”, a more traditional high-efficiency stove being used in development work. The benefit of this hybrid is that once there's no gas left in wood, villagers can add as more wood. This allows a family to cook for hours, even once the initial gasification is complete." 09-12

  38. Landfill Gas from Trash for Fuel (
      "Landfill gas doesn’t get the love of, say, solar or wind power – rotting trash just doesn’t have the sex appeal of a well-designed solar array. It’s an energy source that’s readily available, though, and being utilized in more and more places. That includes right here in St. Louis: local utility Ameren Missouri opened it Maryland Height Renewable Energy Center earlier in the Summer. This small plant is producing enough energy from landfill gas to power 10,000 homes, making it the largest facility of its kind in the state." 09-12

  39. Largest Conversion from Coal to Biomass in Europe (
      "Drax Group Plc will spend $1 billion to turn the U.K.’s biggest coal-fired plant into western Europe’s largest clean- energy producer."

      "Drax emits at least 70 percent less carbon burning biomass than it does burning coal, Thompson said. Companies burning biomass don’t need to buy carbon credits to offset their emissions under the EU Emissions Trading System as the fuel is considered carbon-neutral." 12-12

  40. Navy Presses Forward With Biofuels (Voice of America News)
      "Over the last few months, the navy has been showcasing how biofuels can transform the military and eventually lead what Navy Secretary Ray Mabus hopes will be a transition away from energy sources in unstable parts of the world."

      " 'The main reason we are moving toward alternative energy in navy marine corps is to make us better war fighters, is to reduce our vulnerability on imported fossil fuel,' he stated. '(To) Make sure we have energy security and energy independence in the United States military, United States Navy.' " 07-12

  41. Old Wood Is New Coal (
      "Using biomass for power and heat -- mainly from poplar, willow and pine trees -- grew by 25 percent during the past two decades, according to the International Energy Agency, the Paris-based adviser to 28 oil-consuming nations such as the U.S."

      "Power companies are burning trees because they’re renewable and can be cheaper than coal. Wood needs no permit to release carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas blamed for global warming." 06-09

  42. Pyrolysis (
      Provides a glossary of terms related to pyrolysis.

  43. Status Report on Waste-to-Energy Technologies (
      "Diversion of materials from landfills and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been primary goals for both the United States and the rest of the world. According to 2009 statistics from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Americans generated 243 million tons of MSW, including but not limited to paper and paperboard, yard trimmings, plastics, food scraps, metals, rubber, leather, textiles, wood and glass."

      "According to EPA, 82.02 million tons of that material were recovered through recycling. However, that left 66.2 percent of the waste stream unrecovered. According to EPA studies, nearly 12 percent of that unrecovered waste was used in waste-to-energy systems, while the remaining 54 percent was disposed in landfills."

      "Waste-to-energy systems can help address multiple global issues, including eliminating the need for additional landfills, reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane emissions, and satisfying the projected 2 percent increase in electricity demand in 2012." 04-12

  44. Status Report on Waste-to-Energy Technologies (
      "Sanchez admits he is facing similar challenges with interested companies requesting data from the Texas facility. Until this facility comes online to produce needed data and the waste agreement with the City of McAllen finalised, Plasma2Energy could find it a challenge to roll out a second full-scale facility."

      "But, with claims that microwave plasma gasification is 60% more efficient than existing processes, and the ability to produce 70% diesel as a by-product; the ABA process really could be game-changer on the WtE landscape." 04-12

  45. Summary of the Canadian Biomass Industry (
      "In 2013 CanBio and Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) undertook a nationwide survey of Canadian bioenergy plants and operations to understand the growth and structure of the emerging industry. The survey targeted production facilities for ethanol, biodiesel, pellets, bio-heat, bio-power, bio-gas and co-generation and built on the results of previous surveys." 010-14

  46. Timing for Ethanol from Biomass (
      "A wood-burning power plant remains a possibility for La Pine, with the city now taking the lead on the project from Deschutes County and the company behind it waiting for a change in the energy market." 03-15

  47. Toilets for the Twenty-First Century (ABC News)
      "These aren't your typical loos. One uses microwave energy to transform human waste into electricity. Another captures urine and uses it for flushing. And still another turns excrement into charcoal."

      "To pass the foundation's threshold for the world's next toilet, it must operate without water, electricity or a septic system, not discharge pollutants, preferably capture energy or other resources and operate at a cost of 5 cents a day."

      "The United Nations estimates disease caused by unsafe sanitation results in about half the hospitalizations in the developing world. About 1.5 million children die each year from diarrheal disease." 08-12

  48. Two Myths About Wood Pellets (Forest Business Network)
      "There are two highly inaccurate statements that are often made about the use of wood pellets as a substitute for coal in power generation. (1) The CO2 released from the combustion of wood pellets is greater than the CO2 released from the combustion of coal; (2) Using wood pellets for heat or power creates a carbon debt that takes decades to repay." 17-14

  49. What Is the Cost of Clean Syngas? (
      "Several large companies have expressed interest, Davis said. He estimates the company could make syngas for about 75 percent of the current price of natural gas on commodities markets, and less than half that of fuel oil. Tipping fees for taking the waste could further lower the cost, he said."

  50. Where Do the Wood Pellets Go? (
      "If not for the largesse of European utilities required to meet government carbon emissions standards for their coal-burning plants, however, the U.S. pellet export industry would arguably not exist. Such emission standards have yet to reach the federal level here in the U.S."

      "Even so, pellet exports from the U.S. to Europe currently average over 2 million metric tons per year, which converts to about 450 MWs of electrical capacity solely from combusted pellets. But that’s still a tiny fraction of Europe’s energy needs — thus, there’s room for growth as a number of coal-fired power plants switch from coal to pellets. By 2020, Europe may annually import as much as 40 million metric tons of pellets from all sources, up from today’s 3.5 million metric tons of total pellet imports, says bio-energy consultant William Strauss." 11-13

  51. Wood Pellets (
      World's largest pellet manufacturer opens in Florida. 12-10

  1. Cost of Biomass for Electricity (Department of Energy)
      Places the price of biomass for electricity at $2,000 per million BTU. 05-09

Purchase Resources
  1. Biomass Cook Stoves (
      "The problems: 1) Indoor air pollution in the developing world caused by cooking fires and sooty illumination results in an estimated 1.6 million deaths per year, 2) Deforestation resulting from over use of wood as an energy source causes serious ecosystem degradation in many parts of the developing world."

      "A solution, as Envirofit sees it: New cookstoves, which while still burning biomass (wood, crop waste, dried animal dung) reduce indoor air pollution by 80%, reduce fuel usage by 50% and decrease cooking times by 40%."

      Awesome Library does not endorse these products but provides them as examples. 05-09

  2. Grass Pellets (
      Provides grass pellets for burning or pyrolyzing. "Comparing costs per BTU is a constantly shifting challenge, as the prices of oil, propane and other fuels spiral ever upwards. One thing we know for sure is that 17 pounds of pellets will equal the BTU’s of one gallon of oil. With grass pellets about twelve cents a pound, that comes to $2.04 – less than half of the current per gallon price of delivered home heating oil or propane." 12-12

  3. Wood Pellets (
      Provides wood pellets for burning or pyrolyzing. 12-10

  4. Wood Pellets (
      Provides wood pellets for burning or pyrolyzing. 12-10


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