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Batteries for Hybrids

  1. 2008 Prius Expected to Carry a New Type of Lithium-Ion Batteries (
      "Spies at AutoExpress in the UK have dug up some info on the next generation Toyota Prius hybrid that indicates it will be capable of fuel efficiency approaching 100 miles per gallon." A key part of this improvement is a new technology, lithium-ion batteries based on manganese oxide. 01-07

  2. Altair Nanotechnologies Claims Breakthrough in Lithium-Ion Batteries (
      "Altairnano replaces graphite anodes with its nano-Titanate material, which provides a very high surface area and reduces hazards by removing the graphite. The NanoSafe batteries charge in less than 10 minutes, have a power density of 4 kW/kg, have 85% charge retention at 20,000 cycles, will not explode and have no thermal runaway, according to the company." 10-07

  3. Batteries - Zinc-Air (
      Describes breakthrough air-zinc batteries for a pollution free and more energy efficient solution to storage of electricity.

      Editor's Note: Zinc-air batteries are not re-charged by plugging in a battery charger. Rather, the system is to return the batteries to a re-charging station and pick up ones that have been re-charged. 2-05

  4. Charts on Batteries, Including Lithium Manganese Oxide (
      Provides charts to compare different types of batteries. 01-07

  5. GM Announces Delivery of Lithium Nanophoshate Batteries for Volt Car (
      "GM has confirmed receiving the first Chevy Volt specific lithium-ion prototype battery pack from the Continental/A123 Systems production team. The pack was delivered to GM’s Mainz Kastel laboratory in Germany on the morning of January 31st." 02-08

  6. Lithium Battery Industry (
      "In February, President Barack Obama told the crowd at a Henderson, Nev., high school that not so long ago, the U.S. made barely 2% of the advanced batteries used in the world's electric vehicles. Now, thanks to a multibillion-dollar federal investment, American companies are positioned to increase production tenfold — and potentially control 40% of the global lithium-ion-battery market by 2015. 'We've created an entire new industry,' Obama said."

      "Not quite, but certainly the beginnings of one. Demand for lithium-ion batteries is increasing dramatically as electric-car technology improves and prices drop. Nissan has introduced the all-electric Leaf, and this year Chevy will debut the long-anticipated gas-electric Volt. Those and future electric cars need battery packs, and at least a dozen American lithium-battery start-ups are competing with Asian companies such as Sanyo and Hitachi to provide them." 03-10

  7. Lithium Ion Batteries - Advantages (
      "Currently nickel-metal-hydride batteries power most HEVs, but lithium-ion batteries likely will become the preferred choice for HEV manufacturers because they offer power, size, weight, cycle-life and cost advantages, according to Johnson Controls, one of IndustryWeek's IW 50 Best Manufacturing Companies for 2005." 02-06

  8. Lithium Ion Batteries Breakthrough (
      "Researchers at MIT have now developed lithium nickel manganese oxide electrodes for a new type of lithium battery that offers unexpectedly high rate-capability—considerably better than lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2), the current battery electrode material of choice."

      "A battery made from the new material can charge or discharge in about 10 minutes—about 10 times faster than unmodified lithium nickel manganese oxide technology, according to Gerbrand Ceder, MIT professor of materials science and engineering, who led the project. That brings it much closer to the timeframe needed for hybrid car batteries."

      "The lithium nickel manganese oxide [Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2] batteries would also be less expensive and more stable than lithium cobalt oxide cells. Before the material can be used commercially, the manufacturing process needs to be made less expensive, and a few other modifications will likely be necessary, Ceder said." 02-06

  9. Lithium Ion Phosphate Batteries (
      "The lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery is a type of rechargeable battery, specifically a lithium ion battery, which uses LiFePO4 as a cathode material."

      "Products using the doped nanophosphate materials developed by Prof. Chiang are now in high volume mass production by A123Systems and are in use in industrial volumes by major corporations including Black and Decker, DeWalt, General Motors, Daimler, Cessna and BAE Systems among others." 02-08

  10. Lithium Ion Phosphate Batteries: A Comparison (
      "A123 Systems introduced a new cell in 2006. It is known mainly as 'A123' but also 'M1'. The chemistry is Lithium Iron Phosphate which is sometimes abbreviated Li-Fe or Li-FePo4. These cells have most of the good features of both Lithium Polymer and Nicads." 02-08

  11. Lithium Nanophoshate Batteries (
      "A123’s Nanophosphate™ technology delivers exceptional calendar and cycle life. At low rates our ANR26650M1 cells can deliver thousands and thousands of cycles at 100% Depth-of-Discharge, a feat unmatched by commercial lithium ion cells. Even when cycled at 10C discharge rates, our cells deliver in excess of 1,000 full depth-of-discharge cycles."

      "With 10+ year projected calendar and cycle life, our batteries are well suited for automotive applications including hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). And at high rates with 100% DOD, they deliver unmatched life performance for cordless applications." 10-07

  12. Lithium Nanophoshate Batteries (
      "The 32157 M1HD cell uses a higher-energy electrode design geared specifically for PHEVs, and should offer greater volumetric energy density and the lowest cost per watt-hour. Currently used in a Saturn Vue PHEV development program, the 32157 is designed to offer superior calendar and cycle life at high depth-of-discharge (DOD), as well as excellent power density for charge-sustaining operation." 03-08

  13. Lithium Nickel Managnese Oxide Batteries (
    "Researchers at MIT have developed a new type of lithium battery that could become a cheaper alternative to the batteries that now power hybrid electric cars."

    "The new material is more stable (and thus safer) than lithium cobalt oxide batteries, which are used to power small electronic devices like cell phones, laptop computers, rechargeable personal digital assistants (PDAs) and such medical devices as pacemakers."

    "Scientists already knew that lithium nickel manganese oxide could store a lot of energy, but the material took too long to charge to be commercially useful. The MIT researchers set out to modify the material's structure to make it capable of charging and discharging more quickly."

    "A battery made from the new material can charge or discharge in about 10 minutes -- about 10 times faster than the unmodified lithium nickel manganese oxide. That brings it much closer to the timeframe needed for hybrid car batteries, Ceder said." 04-08
  14. New Technology Lithium Ion Batteries Under Mass Production (
      "A123 Systems and China BAK recently announced full-scale, mass production of lithium batteries had begun in China. Electric vehicle advocates have been saying that over time prices would decline with mass production, which has been a common phenomenon in electronics." The new batteries do not use cobalt oxide, currently used in batteries of hand-held devices but deemed too unstable for use in autos. 02-06

  15. The Battery Challenge for Energy-Efficient Vehicles (Christian Science Monitor)
      "Can you imagine this scenario: An American automaker leapfrogs its Japanese competitors with a gasoline-electric hybrid that gets 150 miles to the gallon and can travel 40 miles on battery power alone?"

      "General Motors set out that possibility when it unveiled on Sunday the Chevy Volt, a concept car with a much larger electric motor than today's Toyota Prius." 01-07

  16. Ultracapacitors Claimed to Improve Electric Mileage (
      "ZENN is claiming that drivers will be able to charge up their cars in five minutes and get a five-hundred-mile range." 01-07

Purchase Resources
  1. Lithium Ion LiFePO4 Rechargable Batteries (
      Provides LiFePO4 Lithium Ion batteries. Warning: A123 Lithium Ion batteries are not compatible with LiFePO4 chargers and LiFePO4 chargers are not compatible with A123 Lithium Ion batteries. Awesome Library does not endorse this product, but provides it as an example. 1-02


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