- Biomass as Fuel
- -04-18-08 Nonfood Ethanol (Time.com)
"But what if you could make biofuels from the parts of plants that we don't eat, like wood chips, inedible sugar cane or corn stalks? It's called cellulosic ethanol — so-named because cellulose, a sugar locked in the hard structure of plants, is the energy source — and Verenium is making it." 04-08
- -04-26-09 California Regulators Push for Low Carbon Intensity Fuels (SciTech.com)
"The California Air Resources Board (CARB) late Thursday approved the controversial Low Carbon Fuel Standard, which would force fuel producers to lower their 'carbon intensity' of their products by 10 percent by 2020."
"Makers of ethanol said the rating system unfairly ties their U.S.-made corn-based fuel to mass deforestation – not in the United States – but in developing nations. Ethanol critics say the entire biofuel industry should bear global responsibility for clearing of trees to make farmland to grow crops that will be used to make the fuel." 04-09
- -05-08-09 Study: Bioelectricity Better than Ethanol (Time.com)
"For every acre of land planted with an energy crop — like corn or switchgrass — turning that biomass into electricity gives you more 'miles per acre' than converting it to liquid ethanol, which is how biomass is used today, according to the study. A small SUV powered by bioelectricity could travel nearly 14,000 miles on the energy produced by an acre of switchgrass, while an ethanol-powered SUV could go only 9,000 miles."
"On carbon, too, bioelectricity was a winner. On average, the carbon offset from using bioelectricity is 100% bigger than the offset for using ethanol." 05-09
- -06-26-08 Portable Ethanol Maker (GreenCar.com)
"By the end of 2008, E-Fuel Corporation will start delivering the world’s first portable ethanol micro-refinery system for home use. It can make ethanol and pump it directly into vehicles. All you need is sugar, yeast, water, and 110-220 AC power." 06-08
- Alternative Fuel Sources (PBS.org)
"President Bush has proposed replacing 20 percent of America's fuel with ethanol -- and farmers are benefiting from the accompanying rising corn prices. But some analysts are questioning ethanol's environmental effects and its feasibility as a replacement for oil." 10-07
- Agave for Biofuel (EnergyAnswers.com)
"Here is yet another ethanol feedstock that seems to hold great promise without the need for cellulosic ethanol technology (though it does yield large amounts of cellulose in addition to simple sugars). According to the linked article, Agave could produce much more ethanol per acre per year than corn or sugarcane, with additional coproducts available as well. All this while using much less water and growing on soils poorly suited for corn or sugarcane crops or other food crops."
" 'High in sugar content, the project team estimates that varieties of Agave tequilana weber can yield up to 2,000 gallons of distilled ethanol per acre per year and from 12,000-18,000 gallons per acre per year if their cellulose is included, some 14 dry tons of feedstock per acre every year.' "
- Algae for Biofuel and Ethanol (Popular Mechanics.com)
"Given the right conditions, algae can double its volume overnight. Unlike other biofuel feedstocks, such as soy or corn, it can be harvested day after day. Up to 50 percent of an alga’s body weight is comprised of oil, whereas oil-palm trees—currently the largest producer of oil to make biofuels—yield just about 20 percent of their weight in oil."
GreenFuel hopes its pilot plant will see initial yields of 8000 gallons of biodiesel and 5000 gallons of ethanol per acre of algae." 07-08
- As Cars Use Ethanol, Prices for Food Will Jump (ABC News)
" 'Almost everything in our refrigerator contains corn,' says Lester Brown of the Earth Policy Institute. 'Whether it's milk or eggs or chicken, pork, beef, ice cream, yogurt — these are all corn products.' "
"And consider this: The price of wheat, soybeans and other crops will go up because farmers will be planting less of each."
"Brown says the nation needs a 'timeout' in building ethanol distilleries so people can consider the direction in which they are heading." 04-07
- Co-locating Biomass to Ethanol with Coal-Fired Power Stations (EERE.Energy.gov)
Provides a summary in graphics. 17-14
- E-85 Conversion Kits Not Available (E85Fuel.com)
"No aftermarket conversion company has taken the initiative to certify an E85 kit that would allow a gasoline vehicle to operate on 85 percent ethanol." 05-06
- E-85 Ethanol an Option Now (EthanolAcrossAmerica.net)
" 'Ethanol provides a wonderful short-term option because we can use corn today to make it, and have significant savings in terms of off-setting gasoline, and modest savings on a greenhouse gas level,' " says Professor Kammen at Berkeley."
"But some states, like California, are already moving to deliver E-85 to more gas stations by helping pay the cost of adding the E-85 pumps."
" 'The transition is pretty easy. It looks like its $30,000 to $40,000 per gas station to change over and have ethanol-dedicated pumps,' he says." 05-06
- Editorial: Brazil Is Almost Independent, We Need to Get Serious (CNN News)
"And an astounding 40 percent of the transportation fuel used in Brazil is ethanol. Brazilians say within the next year, they won't need to import a drop of oil. Independence. One official who was in on the ethanol program in its earliest days 30 years ago smiled impishly and told me, 'We won.' "
"In the U.S., ethanol represents only 3 percent of the fuel we burn." 03-06
- Ethanol (E85) Fueling Stations in the USA (E85Fuel.com)
Provides a map. Most states have some fueling stations, but almost all of the stations that are available to the public are in the Midwest. 05-06
- Ethanol (E85) Vehicles (E85Fuel.com - National Ethanol Vehicle Coalition)
Provides a list of vehicles, mostly pickups and other large vehicles with relatively poor MPG. Ford Taurus was available as a Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV) in earlier models but only carries a fleet model for 2006. 05-06
- Ethanol Pollution Surprise (CBS News)
"Factories that convert corn into the gasoline additive ethanol are releasing carbon monoxide, methanol and some carcinogens at levels 'many times greater' than they promised, the government says."
"There are 61 ethanol plants, primarily in the Midwest, producing 2.3 billion gallons a year, and another 14 under construction. By the end of next year, the industry's output is expected to reach 3 billion gallons." 05-06
- Ethanol from Biomass (Wired.com)
"Commercializing biomass-to-ethanol technology would also have international political ramifications, according to Datta. Producing 2.4 million barrels of ethanol per day would 'be a $40 billion per year transfer of wealth from the Middle East to our farmers,'he said. Federal funding of biomass-based ethanol should be less controversial because 'instead of six states benefiting, everyone benefits.' " 01-06
- Ethanol from Microbes (MSNBC News)
"The key to kicking what President Bush calls the nation’s oil addiction could very well lie in termite guts, canvas-eating jungle bugs and other microbes genetically engineered to spew enzymes that turn waste into fuel."
"The idea mentioned by Bush during his State of the Union speech — called 'cellulosic ethanol' — skirts that problem [of using up corn supplies] because it makes fuel from farm waste such as straw, corn stalks and other inedible agricultural leftovers. Cellulose is the woody stuff found in branches and stems that makes plants hard." 02-06
- Ethanol from Switchgrass (REAP Canada)
"A grandiose scheme is proposed to replant 35 million acres of tallgrass prairie to be used for ethanol.” Visitors sometimes spell as switch grass. 01-06
- Ethanol from Switchgrass or Corn Stover (Iowa State University - Baker)
"The energy balance from corn, then, is slightly positive. However, ethanol can also be derived from another source, namely, cellulosic feedstocks such as corn stover or switchgrass. In this case, the energy balance is much improved, as shown in Table 1 of this paper by McLaughlin and Walsh. Their data show that while the energy gain from corn grain is 21%, the energy gain from converting switchgrass to ethanol is 343%!” Visitors sometimes spell as switch grass. 01-06
- Hybrid Tax Credit for 2006 (MSN Autos)
"Starting in 2006, there's a new reason to buy a brand-new gasoline-electric hybrid vehicle: A new tax credit that can cut your federal income tax bill by as much as $3,000-plus." 03-06
- Indy 500 Racers Switch to Ethanol (ABC News)
"This year, the cars will run on a blend of 90 percent methanol, which is distilled from wood, and 10 percent ethanol, the alcohol fuel made from the sugars found in corn."
"In 2007, the cars will run on 100 percent ethanol power." 05-06
- Maximizing Biomass Electricity Generation at Ethanol Power Plants (XcelEnergy.com)
Developed a more extensive model for gas cleanup by including a tar cracking reactor in the synthesis gas stream. This is an important step in creating a gas that is clean enough for combustion in a gas turbine." 17-14
- Seaweed Biofuel (Christian Science Monitor)
"Cultivating seaweed along three percent of the world's coastlines, where kelp already grows, could produce 60 billion gallons of ethanol, according to Dan Trunfio, BAL's chief executive officer. "
"Both Richard and Somerville said the production of ethanol from seaweed using their microbial system would likely require more work to become cost-effective on an industrial scale."
"BAL, which is testing cultivation methods at four pilot seaweed farms off the coast of Chile, is working on commercializing the process to produce ethanol and renewable chemicals, according to Trunfio. Seaweed's advantages, its high sugar content and lack of lignin, make it a viable source for biofuel from a cost perspective, he said."
- Stress Testing Biofuels: A Rigged Game (Time.com)
"The draft conclusions announced by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administrator Lisa Jackson were that cellulosic ethanol and other next-generation renewables will dramatically reduce greenhouse-gas emissions over their entire life cycle, but that in some scenarios, corn ethanol (as well as lesser-used soy biodiesel) can produce even more emissions than gasoline."
"Maybe there's nothing EPA officials can do to stop the renewable-fuels steamroller, but it would nice if they suggested slowing it down." 05-09