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Military History

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2007

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  1. Civil War in the USA
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Papers
  1. -03-25-05 F-16 Military Jets (BBC News)
      "The F-16 has a fearsome reputation. It is one of the most reliable, manoeuvrable and effective military aircraft in the world."

      "Used mainly by the US it is a multi-role fighter with the ability to attack other planes in the air, and seek out and destroy targets on the ground."

      "In recorded dogfights with other aircraft it has defeated its opponents 70 times without a single loss." 3-05

  2. -03-25-05 U.S. Decides to Sell F-16 Military Jets to Pakistan (BBC News)
      "The US government has approved the sale of F-16 fighter jets to Pakistan, Bush administration officials say." 3-05

  3. American Presidents at War (USNews.com)
      "America is attacked. The president addresses Congress in stirring terms. Senators and representatives, with a few eccentric exceptions, vote for a declaration of war, and the overwhelming majority of the people support the war effort without stint. The president appoints sterling generals and admirals and superintends massive war production. American troops surge to victory, and peace is made."

      "This is the picture we have of the way America, and American presidents, go to war. It comports with what we think happened in World War I and, especially, in World War II. In this view of U.S. history, American presidents lead the nation only into wars that are forced upon them."

      "There's only one problem. This picture is almost entirely contrary to the facts. 1-06

  4. Cheney, Dick - Former Secretary of Defense and Current Vice-President (The Center for Public Integrity)
      "As secretary of defense, Cheney saw the fall of the Soviet Union, helped conduct the Panama invasion to oust Manuel Noriega, and sent the first American troops to Somalia with the Unified Task Force (UNITAF) to help provide relief assistance. But his greatest challenge was the Persian Gulf War."

      "The former White House chief of staff, congressman and secretary of defense quickly added to his resume. While working a senior fellow at the American Enterprise Institute, a conservative think tank, Cheney served on the board of directors for such prominent companies like US West, Procter and Gamble, and Lockheed Martin and still managed to lecture widely across the United States."

      "But it wasn't until 1995 that his career really took off when he became the CEO of the Dallas-based oil services firm, Halliburton Co. Cheney's arrival was a watershed event that brought the company an unprecedented level of profitability. During Cheney's tenure at Halliburton revenue more than doubled, thanks in part to Cheney's ability to secure overseas business for the firm. By the time Cheney left the firm, in the summer of 2000, overseas operations accounted for 68 percent for total revenues, up from 51 percent when he arrived. By the time the 2000 Presidential election was gearing up, Halliburton had become the world's largest diversified energy services company of its kind."

      "In the April 2000, Cheney agreed to chair then-Gov. George W. Bush's vice-presidential selection committee. In May, he assured Halliburton stockholders that he had no intentions of leaving his position for another Bush administration. But this proved to be a promise that he wouldn't keep."

      "In July 2000, Bush announced that Cheney would be his running mate. Cheney prepared for the campaign and pledged to forfeit his interests in the private sector, specifically in Halliburton."

      "In January 2001, Bush was inaugurated as the 43rd President after the closest election in U.S. history, with Cheney serving as his vice president." 1-04

  5. Conscientious Objector (Center on Conscience and War)
      Explains the legal requirements that must be fulfilled for someone to be classified as a "conscientious objector" in the United States.

      "The law does not accept 'a merely personal moral code' as the basis for a CO classification. This is intended to exclude from CO status persons who have nothing but a private, personal preference against participating in war, and who do not feel so strongly about war that it can be said they have a genuine moral or religious basis to the objection."

      "A person who wants to get out of military service because it is inconvenient or for reasons of 'personal expediency' ('it interferes with my school, job, or family plans, etc.') cannot expect to be classified as a CO."

      "The current statute says that CO claimants must object to 'participation in war in any form.' This means that in order to qualify as a CO you must be prepared to say honestly that you would refuse to participate in any war in which you would reasonably be expected to fight. 10-02

  6. Draft - What Happens During a Military Draft (About.com)
      Describes steps taken to implement a military draft. No draft is underway in the U.S. at present (February, 2004). 2-04

  7. Draft Proposed in the U.S. Congress (HSLDA.org)
      Describes bills currently under consideration in the Senate (S 89) and the House (H.R. 163) for a universal draft, called the Universal National Service Act of 2003.

      The purpose of each of the bills is: "To provide for the common defense by requiring that all young persons in the United States, including women, perform a period of military service or a period of civilian service in furtherance of the national defense and homeland security, and for other purposes."

      The bill is was introduced by Senator Hollings in the Senate on January 7, 2003. It has been read twice and then referred to the Senate Committee on Armed Services. The bill was introduced by Mr. Rangel and others in the House of Representatives. The bill was referred to the Committee on Armed Services." 2-04

  8. F-16 Military Jets (BBC News)
      "The F-16 has a fearsome reputation. It is one of the most reliable, manoeuvrable and effective military aircraft in the world."

      "Used mainly by the US it is a multi-role fighter with the ability to attack other planes in the air, and seek out and destroy targets on the ground."

      "In recorded dogfights with other aircraft it has defeated its opponents 70 times without a single loss." 3-05

  9. Geneva Convention on Treatment of Prisoners of War (University of Minnesota)
      Provides the rules, adopted by most countries, for treatment of prisoners of war. Killing, torturing, starving, injuring, mistreating, or failing to provide medical assistance for prisoners of war is a war crime.

  10. Guide to Toppling Autocrats (New York Times)
      "Few Americans have heard of Mr. Sharp. But for decades, his practical writings on nonviolent revolution — most notably 'From Dictatorship to Democracy,' a 93-page guide to toppling autocrats, available for download in 24 languages — have inspired dissidents around the world, including in Burma, Bosnia, Estonia and Zimbabwe, and now Tunisia and Egypt."

  11. Iraq vs. U.S. Wars (USNews.com)
      "Bush I and II each launched a war with Iraq. That's where the similarities end." 1-06

  12. Kissinger, Henry - Former Secretary of Defense (Nobel eMuseum)
      "Secretary Kissinger has written many books and articles on United States foreign policy, international affairs, and diplomatic history. Among the awards he has received are the Guggenheim Fellowship (1965-66), the Woodrow Wilson Prize for the best book in the fields of government, politics and international affairs (1958), the American Institute for Public Service Award (1973), the International Platform Association Theodore Roosevelt Award (1973), the Veterans of Foreign Wars Dwight D. Eisenhower Distinguished Service Medal (1973), the Hope Award for International Understanding (1973), the Presidentia1 Medal of Freedom (1977) and the Medal of Liberty (1986)."

      "Dr. Kissinger was born in Fuerth, Germany, on May 27, 1923, came to the United States in 1938, and was naturalised a United States citizen on June 19, 1943. He received the BA Degree Summa Cum Laude at Harvard College in 1950 and the MA and PhD Degrees at Harvard University in 1952 and 1954 respectively." 1-04

  13. Lovett, Robert - Former Secretary of Defense (DefenseLink.mil)
      "Robert Lovett has been recognized as one of the most capable administrators to hold the office of secretary of defense and as a perceptive critic of defense organization. His work in completing the Korean War mobilization and in planning and implementing the long-range rearmament program, as well as his proposals to restructure the Department of Defense, were among his major contributions." 1-04

  14. Marshall Plan (JohnDClare.net)
      " Soon after the Truman Doctrine promised to ‘support free peoples’ (March 1947), General George Marshall went to Europe. He was shocked by what he saw. Europe was ruined and – after the coldest winter in record – starving. Marshall told Truman that all Europe would turn Communist unless the US helped. "

      "Marshall announced his Plan to students at Harvard University on 5th June 1947. He promised that America would do ‘whatever it is able to do to assist in the return of normal economic health in the world.’" 1-04

  15. Marshall, George C. - Former Secretary of Defense (Nobel eMuseum)
      "America's foremost soldier during World War II, served as chief of staff from 1939 to 1945, building and directing the largest army in history. A diplomat, he acted as secretary of state from 1947 to 1949, formulating the Marshall Plan, an unprecedented program of economic and military aid to foreign nations." 1-04

  16. McNamara, Robert S. - Former Secretary of Defense (DefenseLink.mil)
      "The first company head selected outside the Ford family, McNamara received substantial credit for Ford's expansion and success in the postwar period. Less than five weeks after becoming president at Ford, he accepted Kennedy's invitation to join his cabinet."

      "Evaluations of McNamara's long career as secretary of defense vary from glowing to negative and sometimes scathing. One journalist reported criticism of McNamara as a " 'human IBM machine' who cares more for computerized statistical logic than for human judgments." On the other hand, a congressman who had helped shape the National Security Act in 1947 stated when McNamara left the Pentagon that he "has come nearer [than anyone else] to being exactly what we planned a Secretary of Defense to be when we first wrote the Unification Act." Former Secretary of State Dean Acheson wrote, "Except for General Marshall I do not know of any department head who, during the half century I have observed government in Washington, has so profoundly enhanced the position, power and security of the United States as Mr. McNamara." Journalist Hanson W. Baldwin cited an impressive list of McNamara accomplishments: containment of the more damaging aspects of service rivalry, significant curtailment of duplication and waste in weapon development, institution of systems analysis and the PPBS, application of computer technology, elimination of obsolescent military posts and facilities, and introduction of a flexible strategy, which among other things improved U.S. capacity to wage conventional and limited wars. Although McNamara had many differences with military leaders and members of Congress, few could deny that he had had a powerful impact on the Defense Department, and that much of what he had done would be a lasting legacy."

      "His book, In Retrospect, published in 1995, presented an account and analysis of the Vietnam War that dwelt heavily on the mistakes to which he was a prime party and conveyed his strong sense of guilt and regret." 1-04

  17. Military Joint Chiefs of Staff of the USA (CNN)
      Provides a short biography of the Chief of each of the armed forces, including the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs, General Richard Meyers.

  18. Staying in Touch With Home (New York Times)
      "Forget the drones, laser-guided bombs and eye-popping satellite imagery. For the average soldier, the most significant change to modern warfare might just boil down to instant chatting." 02-11

  19. Viet Nam Vets Feel Abandoned After Secret Experiments (CNN News)
      "This top secret Cold War research program initially looked for ways to defend against a chemical or biological attack by the Soviet Union, thought to be far ahead of the United States in 'psycho-chemical' warfare. But the research expanded into offensive chemical weapons, including one that could, according to one Army film obtained by CNN, deliver a 'veritable chemical ambush' against an enemy." 03-12

  20. War of 1812 (Feldmeth)
      Provides key events and causes of the War of 1812.

   
   


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