- Bleach Treatment for Purifying Household Water (BCHealthGuide.org)
"Unscented household bleach with 5% chlorine can sometimes be a good disinfectant. For example, this may work when the water is not heavily polluted, or when Giardia or cryptosporidiosis are not a concern."
"Bleach does not work well in killing off Giardia or beaver fever or Cryptosporidium parasites. The amount of bleach needed to kill these parasites makes the water almost impossible to drink. If Cryptosporidium or Giardia are in your water, boiling is the best way to ensure safe drinking water."
"Disinfection using bleach works best with warm water. Add 1 drop (0.05 mL) of bleach to 1 Litre [33.8 fluid ounces] of water, shake and allow to stand for at least 30 minutes before drinking. Double the amount of bleach for cloudy water or for cooler water. A slight chlorine odour should still be noticeable at the end of the 30-minute waiting period if you have added enough bleach. The longer the water is left to stand after adding bleach, the more effective the disinfection process will be."
"If you are treating water from a lake, stream or shallow well, use twice as much household (5%) bleach as indicated in the chart below and wait twice as long before drinking it because it is more likely to contain chlorine-resistant parasites from animal droppings."
"Let the water stand for at least an hour after adding the bleach before you start drinking it. If the water is colder than 10°C [50 degrees Fahrenheit] or has a pH higher than 8, let the water stand for at least two hours before drinking." 10-07
- Bleach Treatment for Purifying Household Water (EPA.gov)
"If you can't boil water, you can disinfect it using [unscented] household [chlorine] bleach. Bleach will kill some, but not all, types of disease-causing organisms that may be in the water. If the water is cloudy, filter it through clean cloths or allow it to settle, and draw off the clear water for disinfection. Add 1/8 teaspoon (or 8 drops) of regular, unscented, liquid household bleach for each gallon of water, stir it well and let it stand for 30 minutes before you use it. Store disinfected water in clean containers with covers." 10-07
- Boiling for Purifying Household Water (BCHealthGuide.org)
"Boiling is the best way to kill bacteria, viruses and parasites. A full boil for at least one minute is recommended. At elevations over 2,000 meters (6,500 feet) you should boil water for at least two minutes to disinfect it. NOTE: This is not appropriate for water that is heavily polluted or subject to chemical contamination." 10-07
- Iodine Treatment for Purifying Household Water (BCHealthGuide.org)
"Whenever possible use warm water (20°C) and let stand a minimum of 20 minutes after mixing and before drinking. For cold water (5 - 15°C) increase the waiting time after mixing to 40 minutes. If you are using 2% tincture of iodine, use 10 drops (0.5 mL) for every one litre [33.8 fluid ounces] of water. With iodine tablets, follow the manufacturer's directions."
"Note: Pregnant women should not use iodine drops to purify water as it may have an effect on the fetus. Iodine should not be used to disinfect water over long periods of time as prolonged use can cause thyroid problems." 10-07
- Nature's Water Cleaners: Mussels (National Geographic)
"One mussel alone can cleanse as much as a gallon of water per hour. Add up the work of a whole mussel community, and you get a virtual water treatment plant."
"According to Ethan Nedeau, an expert on the freshwater mussels of New England, even half the population of mussels at work in a one-half mile segment of New Hampshire’s Ashuelot River can help cleanse more than 11.2 million gallons of water a day–roughly the quantity of household water used by 112,000 people." 07-12
- -Disinfecting Water with a UV Lamp (WorldBank.org)
"Developed by a French engineer, Florence Cassassuce, the UV bucket is just that: a 15-liter plastic bucket that contains a chamber with a UV light, which kills bacteria as the water flows through it. In 4 minutes, a family can purify enough water to last it a few days." 12-07
- -Filtering Water With LifeStraw (Wall Street Journal)
The light blue straw with a resilient polystyrene shell looks like a child's musical recorder. When someone sucks through the straw, the water flows through textile and iodine filters, which kill off viruses and bacteria such as E. coli."
"The company says nongovernmental organizations and nonprofit agencies already have bought hundreds of thousands of the drinking tubes and are distributing them in countries with unsafe drinking water."
Awesome Library does not endorse these products but provides them as examples. 07-07
- Biosand Filters (BiosandFilter.org)
"In order to be effective, most literature insists that a constant flow of water passing through a slow sand filter is essential. This flow provides oxygen and food to the organisms that make up the 'schmutzdecke' and biological zone living within the top part of the sand, which are responsible for much of the removal of disease-causing organisms. Under stagnant conditions, the biological can start to die - sometimes within several hours."
"However, Dr. Manz of the University of Calgary re-designed the traditional sand filter, making it suitable for intermittent use at a household level. This adaptation, brilliant in simplicity, consists of raising the under drain pipe back up to between 1 and 8 cm above the sand level, ensuring a foolproof method for maintaining the water level just above the sand. Manz proved that, even when water is not continually added to the filter, oxygen can still permeate into the water to reach the organisms living in the sand by diffusion accross this shallow layer of standing water." 10-07
- Biosand Filters (MedGadget.com)
"University of North Carolina researchers, lead by Mark Sobsey, are the first to scientifically document that filters made of concrete, gravel, and sand can significantly reduce the incidence of diarrheal diseases, the leading cause of death in many third world countries." 10-07
- Biosand Pitcher Filters (MIT.edu)
"This proposal is for funding for the development of a new household water filter that costs less than $1 USD – the BioSand pitcher filter. Developed specifically for use by poor people in developing countries, this technology has much to offer as a purveyor of safe household drinking water. System strengths include simplicity, effectiveness, economic sustainability, social acceptability, and reliance on local resources." 10-07
- Contamination With Sulfates or Hydrogen Sulfide (Water-Research.net)
"Sulfates and hydrogen sulfide are both common nuisance contaminants. Although neither is usually a significant health hazard, sulfates can have a temporary laxative effect on humans and young livestock. Sulfates also may clog plumbing and stain clothing. Hydrogen sulfide produces an offensive 'rotten egg' odor and taste in the water, especially when the water is heated."
"Treatment options depend on the form and quantities in which sulfates and/or hydrogen sulfide occur in untreated water- Therefore, it is critical that a comprehensive water analysis be conducted." 12-07
- Engineers Without Borders Works on Clean Water (Time.com)
"That was the genesis of Engineers Without Borders (EWB), a nonprofit group that focuses on low-tech, high-impact projects in the developing world, implemented almost entirely by student engineers. If you think this sounds a bit warm and fuzzy for the right-angle world of engineering, think again. Since Amadei launched the national organization in 2002, more than 230 affiliated chapters have sprung up in universities and professional firms around the U.S., comprising some 8,000 members, with more overseas. EWB has built everything from aqueducts in Mali to solar panels in Rwanda. And the group is changing the way engineering is taught in schools by demanding that its practitioners address the long-neglected needs of the billions of people who live without clean water or decent sanitation." 12-07
- Modified Clay Pots (UNESCO.org)
"Water is drawn from the pots using a calabash or a cup. Often the cups, or the hands holding them, are contaminated. As a result, the water is contaminated and those who drink it become infected. Water contamination during storage and handling has resulted in diarrhoeal diseases, a problem that is further aggravated by poor water sources. Because the people were not willing to change to plastic vessels designed to reduce or eliminate post-contamination, local potters, with technical assistance from the Nyanza Healthy Project team, began to produce modified clay pots. They fitted the conventional pots with a narrow mouth, a spigot, a lid and a flat base for easy water extraction. There is a space to retain sediment and the water is treated, stored and accessed through the spigot."
"The pots are manufactured and sold to the community at an affordable price. This is an income-generating activity. At the household level, the water is treated with a sodium hypo-chlorite solution and stored in the pots. When the pots are empty they are cleaned with sisal or twine and sand and refilled. The project helps the producers to reach the consumers through hygiene education, social marketing and a community mobilization approach." 10-07
- Silver Ceramic Water Purifiers (Purifier.com)
"The goal is to make available at low cost, appropriate, silver ceramic systems like the one shown above. Until now the great benefits of silver ceramic filters have not been realized by the poor. An express objective of this site is to provide information, which is as complete as possible, on any and all advances in the understanding of silver ceramic water systems, for bacteria removal." 10-07
- Chlorine Dioxide Tablets for Purifing Water (REI.com)
Costs around $13 for 30 tablets. "Features the same proven technology used in municipal water supplies; effective against viruses, bacteria, giardia and cryptosporidium."
"Meets U.S. EPA purification guidelines; might take as long as four hours to kill contaminants in extreme situations." 10-07
- Iodinated Resin: Katadyn Exstream Purifier Water Purifier (REI.com)
Costs around $45. "First-stage Filter removes large sediment and disagreeable odors"
"Second-stage Cyst Filter traps protozoa in a web of glass-fiber"
"Third-stage EPA registered ViruStat Microbial Cartridge disinfects the water from bacteria and viruses with iodinated resin."
Awesome Library does not endorse these products, but provides them as examples. 03-06
- Solar Water Pasteurizer from Everyday Recyclables (SolarCooking.org)
Materials required are:
* 1 or 2 liter clear plastic soda bottle.
* 12 oz. aluminum soda can
* Piece of corrugated cardboard 1/4" x 24" x 32"
* Aluminum foil or reflective plastic from inside chip bags, etc... 04-08
- Solar Water Pumps (SolarKey.com)
"Our series of solar powered products have delivered outstanding reliability for worldwide gardens, ponds and buildings."
Awesome Library does not endorse these products, but provides them as examples. 03-08
- Ultraviolet Light Disinfection: Water Line Version (ExcelWater.com)
"Canadian-made Trojan UVMax effectively purifies your water, protecting you against viruses, bacteria, and intestinal protozoa such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia." 10-07
- Ultraviolet Light: SteriPEN Adventurer Water Purifier (REI.com)
Costs around $150. "Requires no pumping, chemicals, test strips, extended time-keeping or filters; leaves no aftertaste, will not clog and does not require lubrication"
"Innovative SteriPEN system uses UV light rays instead of chemicals to purify water for drinking"
"Ultraviolet (UV-C) light rays safely sterilize clear water by destroying protozoa (including Giardia and Cryptosporidium), bacteria and even viruses"
"SteriPEN Adventurer is simple to use: Just press a button and gently agitate the water with a quick stir"
"Purifies 16 fl. oz. of water (cold or warm) in less than a minute, or 32 fl. oz. in a minute and a half"
"Small size fits most containers—use it in cups, mugs, water bottles and canteens"
"Carries easily in a shirt pocket"
"Solar battery charger also acts as a carrying case."
Awesome Library does not endorse these products, but provides them as examples. 10-07
- Ultraviolet Water Filter and Disinfection of Clear Well Water (CostPlusWater.com)
"The Spectrum Plus system will remove or significantly reduce over 50 carcinogenic chemicals listed by the EPA, and also disinfect the entire home’s water supply against harmful pathogenic bacteria such as E. Coli, baccilary dysentary, typhoid, cholera, and others. Water disinfection by ultraviolet light is a physical procedure that does not alter your water’s chemical composition, smell or flavor. It’s an effective and economic alternative to chlorination." Costs around $1,200.Capacity is "hundreds" of gallons per day. Awesome Library does not endorse this product but provides it as an example. 04-08
- Waste Water Treatment with Aeration (Lenntech.com)
"Sewage aeration is necessary for providing oxygen to the effluent to be treated. Lenntech provides systems to be fixed to a concrete base or metal framework, and floating systems for ponds and waste water treatment plants.
Awesome Library does not endorse these products, but provides them as examples. 10-07
- Water Distillers: Non-Electric (CostPlusWater.com)
Provides stove or fire-based distiller for $289. Capacity is 16 gallons per day. Awesome Library does not endorse this product but provides it as an example. 04-08