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Water Conservation

Sub-Topics
2007
2008
2010
Aeration
Arsenic Removal
Bottled Water
Cisterns
Clean Village Water
Desalination
Duckweed
Governance
Hydrogen Sulfide Removal
Oil Spills
Purify or Filter Water
Rain Barrels
Recycling Water
Reducing Personal Use
Third Pole
Towing Icebergs
Water Leaks
Water Pasteurizing
Water Pollution
Water Pumps
Water Reuse
Water Shortages
Well Water
Wetlands
Xeriscaping

Also Try
  1. Biochar
  2. Polar Ice Caps
  3. Ponds
  4. Solar Power Cooking and Water Pasteurizing
Materials
  1. -001 Calculate Your Water Footprint (National Geographic)
      "The average American lifestyle is kept afloat by about 2,000 gallons of H2O a day—twice the global average." 07-12

  2. Water Cycle (NASA for Kids)
      Provides a quiz on the water cycle. 7-05

News
  1. Protection of Water Resources News (National Resources Defense Council)
      "NRDC fights to safeguard drinking water, to protect, preserve and restore our rivers, streams, lakes, wetlands and coastal waters, and to promote conservation and better water management in the arid western states."

Papers
  1. "Soap" Is Glogging Sewers (USA Today)
      "Nationwide, about 22% of sanitary sewer overflows are caused by accumulations of a hard, gucky, adhesive substance called FOG, short for "fats, oils and grease." But until now, no one knew exactly what it was or how it formed." 04-11

  2. -09-12-07 Water Crisis Squeezes California's Economy (Christian Science Monitor)
      "A recent federal ruling to reduce the amount of water that flows through the delta is likely to boost food prices and trim jobs in agriculture." 09-07

  3. -Experts: Sanitation Is a Life-Saver Worldwide (MSNBC News)
      "The world is neglecting a crisis over poor sanitation even as it makes progress in providing clean water, which means that diarrhea and related illnesses such as malnutrition will continue to kill at an alarming rate, experts said Friday."

      "About 1 billion people do not have access to safe drinking water, and 2.5 billion people lack access to adequate sanitation, according to the United Nations. But the World Water Council, organizer of a forum in Turkey this week, said investment in sanitation rarely amounts to more than 0.3 percent of global GDP, even though latrines and sewers are relatively cheap and play a key role in preventing disease." 03-09

  4. -Freshwater (Wikipedia.org)
      "Fresh water contains low concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids. It is an important renewable resource, necessary for the survival of most terrestrial organisms, and required by humans for drinking and agriculture, among many other uses."

      "Fresh water can be defined as water with less than 0.5 parts per thousand dissolved salts." 06-07

  5. -Freshwater: How Much Do We Have? (National Geographic)
      "f you had a dollar for all the water in the world, less than half a penny would represent the world's supply of fresh water in rivers, lakes, and wetlands, which includes ponds, marshes, swamps, and bogs. That halfpenny—0.3 percent, to be exact—represents the Earth's surface water, which we draw upon every day to quench our thirst, water our crops, and power our industries." 06-07

  6. -Study: Fish Found With Pharmaceuticals in Them (CBS News)
      "Fish caught near wastewater treatment plants serving five major U.S. cities had residues of pharmaceuticals in them, including medicines used to treat high cholesterol, allergies, high blood pressure, bipolar disorder and depression, researchers reported Wednesday."

      "Findings from this first nationwide study of human drugs in fish tissue have prompted the Environmental Protection Agency to significantly expand similar ongoing research to more than 150 different locations." 03-09

  7. -Sustainable Planet (Awesome Library - Adams) star
      Describes a few of the most important things we can do to reduce pollution and global warming, as well as improve the availability of drinkable water for the future. 11-00

  8. Bacteria Eat Toxic Compounds (Nature - Adam)
      Describes bacteria that digest chlorinated benzene chemicals, such as solvents, to clean up toxic wastes. 11-00

  9. Bottled Water May Not Be What It Seems to Be (MSNBC News)
      Provides an update on bottled water, revealing that the companies supplying the water do not have to reveal what is in the water or where it came from. The reporter claims that 25% of bottled water comes from...the tap.

  10. California Running Out of Water (CNN)
      Describes California's effort to handle the fact that it is running out of water. 1-01

  11. California's Water Plan (Time.com)
      "For 50 years, the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta has funneled the Sierra Nevada snow runoff from the Sacramento Valley in the north to the giant farms in California's central valley and the now nearly 20 million people who live in Southern California. Both the economy and population of California are growing, but the amount of available water remains the same, or declines, as is currently the case with the state's worst drought in two decades. The legislation creates a new seven-member council to oversee and restore the fragile Delta, imposes a 20% conservation mandate for cities by 2020 and requires the monitoring of groundwater levels throughout the state. It also places a $11.1 billion bond on next November's ballot to pay for overhauling the water system. The bond measure is larded with water projects statewide in an attempt to encourage passage." 11-09

  12. China Running Out of Water Quickly (WorldWaterConservation.com)
      "The decline in China's capacity to irrigate its crops-signs of which include the drying-up of rivers and wells all over the northern region of the country-is coming at a time when depleted world grain stocks are near an all-time low. With its booming economy and huge trade surpluses, China can survive its water shortages by simply importing more of its food, because it can afford to pay more for grain. But low-income countries with growing grain deficits may not be able to pay these higher prices. For the 1.3 billion of the world's people who live on $1 a day or less, higher grain prices could quickly become life threatening. The problem is now so clearly linked to global security that the U.S. National Intelligence Council (NIC) the umbrella over all U.S. intelligence agencies, has begun to monitor the situation with the kind of attention it once focused on Soviet military maneuvers."

  13. Downspout Disconnection (Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto)
      Recommends disconnecting downspouts from sewers to conserve water and reduce pollution. Be sure to have the diversion move the water away from the house's foundation. 12-00

  14. Downspout Disconnection (Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto)
      Recommends disconnecting downspouts from sewers to conserve water and reduce pollution. Be sure to have the diversion move the water away from the house's foundation. 12-00

  15. Drought Monitor for the USA (Hayes)
      Provides a color-coded map of the USA, presenting drought conditions. 12-02

  16. Essay on Globalization by Corporations and Control of Water (ThirdWorldTraveler.com - Shiva)
      Provides an essay by Vandana Shiva on globalization by corporations and their control of water in third world countries. 1-02

  17. Food Chain in Oceans Threatened (Time.com)
      "Rising carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is threatening to make oceans too corrosive for marine organisms to grow protective shells, according to researchers."

      "If emissions continue unabated, the entire Southern Ocean, which stretches north from the Antarctic coastline, and subarctic regions of the Pacific Ocean will soon become so acidic that the shells of marine creatures will soften and dissolve making them easy targets for predators. Others will not be able to grow sufficient shells to survive."

      "The loss of shelled creatures at the lower end of the food chain could have disastrous consequences for larger marine animals." 9-05

  18. Freshwater Conservation (PBS - Bill Moyers Reports Earth on Edge)
      Argues for sustainable use of water supplies. 11-01

  19. Grasslands Conservation (PBS - Bill Moyers Reports Earth on Edge)
      Argues for the value of grasslands and the need to preserve them. 11-01

  20. High Levels of Mercury Found in Fish (Fox News)
      "The federal government advises pregnant women, nursing mothers and young children to avoid fish with high levels of mercury — shark, swordfish, king mackerel or tilefish. Elevated mercury levels have been linked to learning disabilities and developmental delays in children and to heart, nervous system and kidney damage in adults."

      "A supermarket industry group said it was not surprised by the survey, because swordfish and tuna are known to have higher levels of mercury. Many stores already offer brochures or have signs, the group said." 9-05

  21. Keeping Medicines Out of Water (U.S. News)
      "The recent news that medicines are detectable in our water supply is a good reminder to properly dispose of your medications. While the issue is partly one of medicine being excreted into wastewater, improper disposal of drugs down the toilet is responsible, too, says Kasey Thompson, director of patient safety at the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists." 09-08

  22. Mercury Now Polluting Our Food Chain - Pollution Is Reversable (ABC News)
      "Mercury contamination is making its way into nearly every habitat in the United States, not just oceans, according to a report that the National Wildlife Federation will release Tuesday."

      "[Felicia] Stadler[of the National Wildlife Federation] said she believes the key is for this country — and the whole world for that matter — to realize just how big a threat mercury pollution is to our ecosystems."

      " 'We need to be as drastic at cutting mercury as we have been in cutting lead,' she said." 09-06

  23. Mercury Toxicity and Seafood (ABC News)
      "Millions of people make fish — a low-fat, vitamin-rich source of protein — part of their diet for nutritional reasons, or simply because they enjoy the taste. But eating a diet high in fish is becoming increasingly controversial, as some studies tout the benefits of seafood while others argue that the toxic mercury found in some fish outweighs any potential benefits." 10-05

  24. Pollution Reaches Deadly Extremes in China (MSNBC News)
      "No country in history has emerged as a major industrial power without creating a legacy of environmental damage that can take decades and big dollops of public wealth to undo."

      "But just as the speed and scale of China’s rise as an economic power have no clear parallel in history, so its pollution problem has shattered all precedents. Environmental degradation is now so severe, with such stark domestic and international repercussions, that pollution poses not only a major long-term burden on the Chinese public but also an acute political challenge to the ruling Communist Party. And it is not clear that China can rein in its own economic juggernaut." 08-07

  25. Restaurants Moving Away from Bottled Water (ABC News)
      "The newest wave in dining chic is something as common as dirt. It's water -- and not just any water. Tap water. This accessible liquid is back and is being served at some of the finest tables in America." 05-07

  26. Robotic Fish to Monitor Water Pollution (CBS News)
      "A school of mechanical, battery-powered robots in the shape of fish will be released into a Spanish port to help monitor pollution there, scientists said Friday." 03-09

  27. Solutions for the Environment (Awesome Library - Adams)
      Provides a summary of key activities necessary to reduce air and water pollution, reduce the rate of global warming, and more. 1-01

  28. The New Philanthropy (Time.com)
      "The merry-go-round is not just a simple piece of playground equipment. It's a PlayPump water system. Lack of access to clean water is one of Africa's biggest health challenges. Through technology developed by an African entrepreneur, the children are pumping clean water for their village when they turn the merry-go-round." 09-06

  29. Toilets - Low Water Usage (TerryLove.com)
      Compares different low-flow toilets and describes how they work. Recommends several and suggests that early models did not work well. 12-00

  30. UN Warns of a World Water Shortage (BBC News)
      "More than 2.7 billion people will face severe water shortages by the year 2025 if the world continues consuming water at the same rate, the United Nations has warned." 4-02

  31. Virtual Water (WaterYear2003.org)
      "Virtual water is an essential tool in calculating the real water use of a country, or its water footprint, which is equal to the total domestic use, plus the virtual water import, minus the virtual water export of a country. A nation’s water footprint is a useful indicator of the demand it places on global water resources."

      "At the individual level, the water footprint is equal to the total virtual water content of all products consumed. A meat diet implies a much larger water footprint than a vegetarian one, at an average of 4,000 litres of water per day versus 1,500. Being aware of our individual water footprint can help us use water more carefully." 04-06

  32. Water Conservation - The Need (SierraClub.org)
      "The average North American consumes more than 170 gallons of water per day, nearly triple the European level and seven times the per capita average of the rest of the world." 1-04

  33. Water Conservation Needed (Awesome Library - Adams)
      Suggests steps we can take to reverse a global trend - insufficient drinking water. 8-00.

  34. Water Footprint (ColoradoCarbonFund.org)
      "We're all aware that it is good to drink 8 glasses of water a day, but 32,911 glasses a day - come on, that can't be right, can it? Unfortunately it is when it comes to daily water use. According to the Water Footprint Network, when you factor in the water used for all of our energy, food, clothing, transportation, and other needs, this value is what the average American uses. In fact, more than 95% of this water is used for either growing or producing all of what we use and need."

      "Water use can be broken down into three categories: Blue Water, Green Water, and Grey Water. Blue Water is directly extracted from the natural landscape around us in the form of rivers, lakes, snow melt and groundwater. Green Water is sourced from direct precipitation that falls on crops and serves the agricultural sector. Finally, Grey Water is the amount of water necessary to dilute or clean polluted water back into a usable condition. All of these conditions are integrated into the final assessment of our water footprint."

      "Here in Colorado in 2010, our average direct consumption equated to around 172 gallons per person per day. 04-12

  35. Water Is Key to Everything (Truth-Out.org)
      "In case after case around the world, water is being turned into a good for sale and for profit. Driven by a different vision and by economic necessity, a global counter-trend is growing to assure that household water be free or cheap, accessible, and safe, and that the earth’s water be kept pure and flowing." 05-12

  36. Water Powered Water Pumps (Journey to Forever)
      Describes ram pumps, water pumps that are powered by water in order to get water to higher elevations. 12-00

  37. Water and Fish Ecology (Cornell)
      Provides aquatic systems management information.

  38. Water and Health (WaterYear2003.org)
      "Water-related diseases are a growing human tragedy, killing more than 5 million people each year - 10 times the number of people killed in wars. About 2.3 billion people suffer from diseases linked to dirty water. Some 60% of all infant mortality worldwide is linked to infectious and parasitic diseases, most of them water-related." 04-06

  39. Water for Life Program of the United Nations (United Nations)
      "The primary goal of the 'Water for Life' Decade is to promote efforts to fulfill international commitments made on water and water-related issues by 2015."

      "These commitments include the Millennium Development Goals to reduce by half the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water by 2015 and to stop unsustainable exploitation of water resources." 04-06

  40. Water on the Earth (UMAC - OCP)
      Describes availability of water on the Earth, including Water Planet, Physical Symptoms of Water Stress, Hydrologic Cycle, and World's Water Supply.

      "Of all the water on Earth, more than 97% is salt water held in the oceans. The remaining 3% constitutes the fresh water supply on the planet. The majority of fresh water is held in ice (glaciers and polar ice caps) and a large proportion also lies too far underground to be exploitable. The amount of fresh water directly available is less than 1% of the total water in the Earth System." 4-02

  41. World Water Availability by Country (WorldWater.org)
      Provides a list of the amount of water available for each country, by region. 1-02

Projects
  1. Groundwater Exploration (EarthWaterGlobal.com)
      "EarthWater Global locates, develops and manages previously overlooked, large-scale, sustainable groundwater resources. EarthWater's President, Robert Bisson, has developed and demonstrated a revolutionary concept of how fresh water is transmitted through tectonic fractures in bedrock and stored in 'Megawatersheds'. "

      "EarthWater Global draws on data generated from a variety of technologies, developed for and used by the oil and gas industry, to locate and develop these vast groundwater resources on a low-cost, sustainable basis." 06-07

  2. PlayPumps and Clean Water (GivenGain.com)
      "Unless we act now, by 2025 the number of people who lack access to clean water could increase to 2.3 billion." 09-06

  3. Water Conservation (Toiletology.com)
      Describes how water is used in a household (USA) and how it can be conserved. 11-04

  4. Water Pasteurizing - Solar Puddle Design (SolarCooking.com)
      Describes a solar puddle for pasteurizing water. Devices can supply enough clean water for a family or a community for several dollars each. 10-04

  5. Water Pasteurizing Guidelines (SolarCooking.com)
      Discusses how to test for proper pasteurization of water for safety in developing countries. 10-04

  6. Water Pasteurizing Instructions (SolarCookers.org)
      "Regardless of the type of solar cooker used, a way of knowing that the water reached the pasteurization temperature is needed. An inexpensive device that does this was developed, and is shown in the Fig. 2. It is a plastic tube with both ends heated, pinched, and sealed, and with a particular type of soybean fat in one end that melts at 154º F. The tube itself is buoyant, but is weighted with a washer so it sinks to the bottom (coolest) part of the water, with the fat in the high end of the tube. If the fat is found in the low end of the tube at any time after, the water reached the proper temperature, even though the water may have since cooled down. A nylon string makes it easy to take the tube out without recontaminating the water. The tube is reused by flipping it over and sliding the string through the other way. Since heating the water to the pasteurization temperature rather than the boiling point reduces the energy required by at least 50%, the fuel savings offered by this simple device alone is considerable." Provides a diagram. 10-04

Purchase Resources
  1. Downspout Extender (Improvement Catalog)
      Extends the water from the downspout away from the house to help prevent damage to the foundation. 12-00

  2. Water Pasteurizing Indicator (SolarCookers.org)
      Provides an indicator for $6.

Research
  1. 09-04-03 Dean Kamen Develops Sterling Engine (Truthtrek.com)
      "Last year he also expressed interest in developing the Stirling for use as a 500-watt power generator and water purifier in developing countries. In explaining his 'Small is Beautiful' concept, Kamen has noted that more than a billion people in impoverished areas lack access to safe water. 03-06

   
   


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