- -03-25-09 World Wildlife Foundation (WorldWildlife.org)
"For more than 45 years, WWF has been protecting the future of nature. The largest multinational conservation organization in the world, WWF works in 100 countries and is supported by 1.2 million members in the United States and close to 5 million globally. WWF's unique way of working combines global reach with a foundation in science, involves action at every level from local to global, and ensures the delivery of innovative solutions that meet the needs of both people and nature." 03-09
- Biomass Fuel
- Commuting Alternatives
- Alternative Energy (100TopEnergySites.com)
Provides a list of 100 carefully selected sites. 12-01
- Alternative Energy - By Type of Information (About.com - Teuwen)
Provides news, facts, statistics, jobs, research, and more. Includes solar, wind, biofuels, and other sustainable energy sources that are alternatives to fossil fuels. 2-01
- Alternative Energy Businesses (Momentum Technologies - Source Guide)
Provides listings of businesses by location, product type, business type, and business name. 5-01
- Alternative Energy News (About.com - Teuwen)
Provides news, facts, statistics, treatments, symptoms, a glossary, and more. 2-01
- Alternative Energy Resources (Solar Energy International)
Provides organizations, events, and news sources related to sustainable energy sources that are alternatives to fossil fuels.
- Alternative Power Systems (AAPSPower.com)
Provides sources of products that provide alternative energy, such as wind energy. 3-01
- Climate Action Network (CAN)
CAN is an organization of 269 environmental organizations from around the world who are working together to be more effective in reducing the greenhouse effect. 11-99
- Calculate Your Carbon Footprint (EPA.gov)
"This site provides more than 25 easy steps you can take at Home, School, the Office, and On the Road to protect the climate, reduce air pollution, and save money. Take action today! Small steps add up, if we all do our part." 06-12
- Calculate Your Carbon Footprint (SafeClimate.net)
"Your carbon footprint is a representation of the effect you, or your organization, have on the climate in terms of the total amount of greenhouse gases you produce (measured in units of carbon dioxide)." 12-02
- Calculate Your Carbon Footprint and Savings (StopGlobalWarming.org)
"The Stop Global Warming calculator shows you how much carbon dioxide you can prevent from being released into the atmosphere and how much money you can save by making some small changes in your daily life. It’s our hope that the calculator will promote action, awareness and empowerment by showing you that one person can make a difference and help stop global warming." 06-06
- 17-Year-Old Brittany Trilford Addresses 130 World Leaders (YouTube.com)
"On Wednesday 20 June, 2012 17-year-old Brittany Trilford of Wellington, New Zealand addressed 130 heads of state at the opening plenary of the Rio+20 UN Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This is her speech." 06-12
- -01-11-09 Stimulus Debate on "Clean Coal" (U.S. News)
"Steven Chu, President-elect Barack Obama's pick for energy secretary, met this week with several Illinois lawmakers to hear their pitch for a stimulus-related project: the revival of a $1.9 billion advanced coal plant in Mattoon, Ill. The project had its funding revoked last year by the Bush administration, which at the time cited "restructuring" as the cause. Chu, according to one congressional aide, listened intently during the meeting but made no promises about restoring the project, which is arguably the world's most ambitious 'clean coal' effort, at least in conception." 01-09
- -02-20-06 Engineered Plant Increases Carbon Dioxide Uptake (GreenCarCongress.com)
"In research recently completed at Emory University School of Medicine, scientists have discovered a mutant enzyme that could enable plants to use and to convert carbon dioxide more quickly, effectively removing more greenhouse gasses from the atmosphere." 02-06
- -03-30-09 EPA May Move to Regulate Carbon (Time.com)
"On Feb. 17, EPA administrator Lisa Jackson announced that the agency would reconsider a Bush Administration decision not to regulate CO2 emissions from new coal power plants." 03-09
- -04-21-07 ABC News: Seven Continents, Seven Ways to Save the World (ABC News)
"In a world waking up to the importance of protecting the environment and the threat of global climate change, ABC News is marking Earth Day 2007 with a daylong look at the state of our planet." 04-07
- -04-26-09 California Regulators Push for Low Carbon Intensity Fuels (SciTech.com)
"The California Air Resources Board (CARB) late Thursday approved the controversial Low Carbon Fuel Standard, which would force fuel producers to lower their 'carbon intensity' of their products by 10 percent by 2020."
"Makers of ethanol said the rating system unfairly ties their U.S.-made corn-based fuel to mass deforestation – not in the United States – but in developing nations. Ethanol critics say the entire biofuel industry should bear global responsibility for clearing of trees to make farmland to grow crops that will be used to make the fuel." 04-09
- -05-02-07 Ten Tips for Reducing Energy Costs (MSNBC News)
"Individually, all alone, as a single human being, you can decrease production of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases by thousands of pounds each year." 05-07
- -09-17-09 "Cap and Trade" Bill Looking Unlikely (Time.com)
"Despite hopes — and promises by the Democratic leadership — that the Senate would tackle cap-and-trade legislation this fall, it's looking increasingly as if the U.S. will go to Copenhagen with no national carbon caps in place. Senate majority leader Harry Reid told reporters on Sept. 15 that the Senate might have to wait to act on cap and trade until after tackling health care and banking reform." 09-09
- -09-24-09 Is China the "Good Guy" on Climate Change? (Time.com)
"Now the world's fastest growing big economy is ready to move into one of the world's fastest growing financial markets: carbon-trading. The China-Beijing Environmental Exchange (CBEEX) and the French emissions exchange BlueNext announced on Sept. 23 that they were putting together a carbon market standard for China." 09-09
- -10-14-09 Solar House Contest (U.S. News)
"What might look like a quirky 20-home subdivision that has sprung up on the National Mall between the U.S. Capitol and the Washington Monument is actually the Solar Decathlon, a college competition sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy every two years." 10-09
- -Editorial: Is Obama Green Enough? (Time.com)
" 'The world was hopeful that Obama would care about global warming, but he has been completely missing in action on this,' says Phil Radford, executive director of Greenpeace USA."
"Radford is not being entirely fair: Obama has increased alternative-energy funding to record levels and assembled a green team of advisers. They include his Energy Secretary, the Nobel Prize — winning Steven Chu, who told me recently that 'the climate-change problem is at least equal in magnitude' to World War II. He's right. And if Obama wants to win this war, he's going to have to fight, not just make peace." 05-09
- -Environment News (MSNBC.com)
Provides news on methods to improve the environment, such as alternative fuels.
- Green Energy Investment (GreenChipStocks.com)
Provides news and articles on supporting green energy solutions. 07-08
- Obama to Let States Set Higher MPG and Auto Emission Standards (CNN News)
"President Obama signed a memorandum Monday requiring the Environmental Protection Agency to reconsider an application by California to set more stringent auto emissions and fuel efficiency standards than required by federal law."
"If the EPA grants a waiver allowing California to set its own emissions standards, the nation's largest state will be allowed to require automakers to produce trucks and cars that get better mileage than what is required under the current national standard."
"Thirteen other states could take similar action." 01-09
- -01-23-09 Obama's Green Energy Portion of Stimulus Package (UK.Reuters.com)
"The $825 billion economic stimulus package unveiled by Democrats in the House of Representatives on Thursday contains billions of dollars in tax breaks for renewable energy as well as spending for energy efficiency and transmission." 01-09
- -0bama Administration Doubles Fuel Standard (CNN News)
"The Obama administration finalized new fuel economy rules Tuesday that within 12 years will almost double today's standard for cars and light trucks to 54.5 miles per gallon."
"The rules, which have been in the works for several years, will add thousands of dollars to the cost of new cars. But in the long run, regulators say, drivers will spend less on gas, outweighing the additional cost at the dealership. They say the rules will also help reduce the nation's oil imports from OPEC by about half." 08-12
- -51 Ways to Go Green (Time Magazine)
Provides 51 things you can do. 03-07
- -Biodiesel Bus Available Now (NationalGeographic.com)
"Biodiesel, according to the Project BioBus Web site, 'is a safe, renewable, clean burning, domestically-produced fuel made from vegetable oils (such as soy and rapeseed) that can be used in existing diesel engines without modifications.' This eco-friendly fuel is refined from vegetable oil, including fryer oil from fast-food restaurants, by combining it with lye and methanol." 10-04
- -Cattle Diet to Reduce Methane Emissions (Science Daily)
"Beef farmers can breathe easier thanks to University of Alberta researchers who have developed a formula to reduce methane gas in cattle."
"By developing equations that balance starch, sugar, cellulose, ash, fat and other elements of feed, a Canada-wide team of scientists has given beef producers the tools to lessen the methane gas their cattle produce by as much as 25 per cent." 05-11
- -China, India, and USA Make Climate Deal (USA Today)
"A senior Obama administration official says the U.S., China, India and South Africa have reached a 'meaningful agreement' on climate change."
"The official characterized the deal as a first step, but said it was not enough to combat the threat of a warming planet."
Editor's Note: Coal-fired power plants from China, India, and the U.S. are the top sources of human-caused CO2 emissions in the world.
However, decaying organic matter (biomass) releases 8 times as much CO2 into the air as coal-fired plants and all other human activity. If organic waste from agriculture and forestry is pyrolyzed into clean energy and biochar and on a global scale, the amount of total CO2 in the air could be reversed to avoid a catastrophe. 12-09
- -Climate Change: What We Can Do (Evaluation and Development Institute)
"Earth's climate became very stable 10,000 years ago, allowing for agriculture for the first time. Our stable climate arose from a balance of three ingredients:
-Ocean currents and
Greenhouse gases provided a stable temperature to allow ocean currents to mix heat and cold around the globe and to maintain a relatively constant amount of polar ice.
We now have 1/3 more CO2 in the air than we had only 150 years ago--and CO2 stays in the atmosphere for hundreds of years. The extra carbon keeps more heat in the air. The extra heat is absorbed by polar ice, soil, and the oceans. The ice over the Arctic Ocean is expected to be gone during summers within 5-10 years. Instead of ice over the Arctic Ocean reflecting heat, the Arctic Ocean will absorb heat. This will slow the ocean currents even more--they already are slowing because of the change in climate.
When the ocean currents stop and the Arctic ice melts, we will have a climate catastrophe that can be expected to last thousands of years. Permafrost in Russia and other regions will melt, releasing gigantic amounts of carbon and methane stored in the soil. The release will trigger even more extreme climate."
"Only one cost-effective solution has been found for quickly reducing the carbon in the air:"
"Each year we must convert enough biomass (organic waste) into biochar (charcoal) to extract at least 7 gigatons of carbon from the air and place it in our soils." 08-09
- -Dietary Solutions to Methane from Cattle (Time.com)
"Most dietary interventions work by checking methogens — microbes that thrive in oxygen-free environments such as cows' guts, where they convert the available hydrogen and carbon (byproducts of digestion) into methane, a colorless, odorless gas. 'We encourage well-to-do farmers to use oilseed cakes which provide unsaturated fatty acids that get rid of the hydrogen,' Dr. Singhal says. Another solution is herbal additives. Some commonly used Indian herbs such as shikakai and reetha, which go into making soap, and many kinds of oilseeds contain saponins and tannins, substances that make for lathery, bitter meals but block hydrogen availability for methogens. Dr Singhal says they are used in small quantities and the cows don't seem to mind the taste. 'Imagine how much potential they'd have in the international market,' he says." 04-09
- -Editorial: The "Strange Doings on Earth" (Truth-Out.org)
"The IEA [International Energy Agency] estimated that if the world continues on its present course, the 'carbon budget' will be exhausted by 2017. The budget is the quantity of emissions that can keep global warming at the 2 degrees Celsius level considered the limit of safety."
"Also last month, the U.S. Department of Energy reported the emissions figures for 2010. Emissions 'jumped by the biggest amount on record,' The Associated Press reported, meaning that 'levels of greenhouse gases are higher than the worst-case scenario' anticipated by the International Panel on Climate Change in 2007." 12-11
- -Editorial: Domesticated Animals Should Be a Top Priority on Climate Change (WorldWatch.org)
"Whenever the causes of climate change are discussed, fossil fuels top the list.Oil, natural gas, and especially coal are indeed major sources of human-caused emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GHGs). But we believe that the life cycle and supply chain of domesticated animals raised for food have been vastly underestimated as a source of GHGs, and in fact account for at least half of all human-caused GHGs. If this argument is right, it implies that replacing livestock products with better alternatives would be the best strategy for reversing climate change. In fact, this approach would have far more rapid effects on GHG emissions and their atmospheric concentrations—and thus on the rate the climate is warming—than actions to replace fossil fuels withrenewable energy."
Editor's Note: The amount of GHGs is only a part of the issue. Methane from domesticated animals stays in the air for only a short time while CO2 can stay in the air for hundreds of years. 02-13
- -Editorial: Obama's Failure to Defend His Policies (Time.com)
"He rarely explained what he has done."
"I’m not just talking about my beloved stimulus, although Obama didn’t mention that the $800 billion recovery package he passed during his first month in office helped stop the swoon, producing the biggest quarterly jobs improvement in 30 years. He certainly didn’t mention that the stimulus included an unprecedented $90 billion for clean energy, and when Romney did, Obama didn’t explain how it launched a quiet green revolution or correct Romney’s egregious suggestion that thousands of stimulus-funded companies have failed. I can’t even think of a half-dozen. Romney talked about 'losers' like Solyndra and Ener1; why didn’t Obama respond with winners like Envia Systems, which has developed the world’s most powerful electric-vehicle battery, or Silver Spring, which is building millions of smart meters for a modern electric grid? Romney mocked wind and solar; why not mention that wind has doubled, solar has increased over 600%, and they now combine to power 15 million homes with clean domestic electricity?" 10-12
- -Editorial: Swarzenegger Talks About California Leadership on Global Warming (MSNBC News)
That he's a cigar-smoking environmentalist, says Arnold Schwarzenegger, allows him to do one of the things he loves most: defy stereotypes." 04-07
- -Editorial: What Live Earth Really Meant (Time Magazine)
"Live Earth's success will be measured not by the number of trees the initiative plants or the number of energy-efficient light-bulbs sold as a result, but by whether it motivates concertgoers to make climate-change their generation's political priority, and press their leaders to act on it." 07-07
- -Green Homes (Time Magazine)
Provides annual savings in carbon cutting for various efforts. 03-07
- -Leaders Meet on Climate Change (CNN New)
"World leaders converge Tuesday in New York to focus on climate change, with the clock ticking down toward a summit this year in Denmark, where a global climate change pact is to be signed."
"Chinese President Hu Jintao, U.S. President Barack Obama, former U.S. Vice President Al Gore, Japanese Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama, French President Nicolas Sarkozy and Rwandan President Paul Kagame are among the world leaders expected to speak Tuesday."
"Roundtables are also planned, all with the overarching and generally accepted goal of limiting the rise of Earth's temperature to within 2 degrees Fahrenheit above its temperature before the industrial revolution." 09-09
- -Obama's Clean Energy Revolution (Time.com)
"Before President Obama took office, the U.S. had 25 gigawatts of wind power, and the government’s “base case” energy forecast expected 40 GW by 2030. Well, it’s not quite 2030 yet, but we’ve already got 50 GW of wind. We’ve also got about 5 GW of solar, which isn’t much but is over six times as much as we had before Obama. Mitt Romney has suggested that wind and solar are “imaginary” sources of energy, but they can now power 15 million homes, and their industries employ more than 300,000 Americans. That’s real." 08-12
- -Sustainable Planet (Awesome Library - Adams)
Describes a few of the most important things we can do to reduce pollution and global warming, as well as improve the availability of drinkable water for the future. 11-00
- -U.S. to Cut Emissions of Soot (Time.com)
"So with the front door locked on climate action, it might be time to try the back. That’s why the U.S.—as well as representatives from the U.N. and several other countries—is getting behind a new initiative to reduce black carbon, methane and other “short-lived” greenhouse gases, so called because they remain in the atmosphere for a much shorter time than CO2. Rather than focusing only on carbon dioxide—which has proven stubbornly difficult to reduce, given that CO2 is part of nearly every major source of energy—working to cut the secondary gases opens up new ways to slow down warming and get side benefits to public health and agriculture. Better yet, focusing on black carbon and methane can help the international community bypass the developed vs. developing world impasse that has essentially frozen action on climate change" 02-12
- -Vaccine to Reduce Methane Emissions (NewScientist.com)
"You cannot stop a sheep belching or farting, but you can make sure its eructations are less damaging to the environment."
"Belches and, to a far lesser degree, farts from sheep, cows and other farm animals account for around 20% of global methane emissions. The gas is a potent source of global warming because, volume for volume, it traps 23 times as much heat as the more plentiful carbon dioxide." 04-11
- -Vaccine to Reduce Methane Emissions (Science Daily)
" 'Sheep and cattle produce significant amounts of this gas as part of their normal digestive process, producing around 14 per cent of Australia's total greenhouse emissions, measured in CO2 equivalents,' he [Dr Rob Kelly, of CSIRO Livestock Industries] says."
" 'Based on our current experimental results (in sheep), we expect that the commercial vaccine will be able to reduce methane emissions by about 20% in these animals - or a total saving equivalent to that which would result from a reduction of 300,000 tonnes in carbon dioxide.' "
"'We also expect that there will be some modest gains in productivity on these animals' liveweight. In sheep it may also improve wool production, as methane is a waste gas from feed digestion. A reduction in methane production should leave more nutrients available to the animal.' "
"It is anticipated that the program will offer the following benefits:
* Vaccine available at minimal cost or free for some or all of the program
* Productivity gains
* Participation in greenhouse gas abatement to help reduce global warming
* Possibility of labelling/marketing/trading as environmentally friendly and sustainable." 03-07
- -Vaccine to Reduce Methane Emissions (Science Daily)
"A major vaccination programme designed to slash methane production by sheep and cattle is underway in Australia."
Methane is a very potent greenhouse gas. Widespread vaccination could significantly reduce the animals' contributions to global warming, say the vaccine's developers at CSIRO, Australia's national science agency. Vaccination could also boost the animals' growth, they believe."
"If all cattle worldwide were vaccinated, global methane emissions would be cut by about five per cent, Newbold calculates. As a greenhouse gas, methane is 21 times more potent than carbon dioxide. 'A five per cent reduction would be considerable,' he says." 9-04
- -We Are Not Doing What Is Necessary to Avoid Climate Change (Time.com)
"But there is one number that may not get discussed much at Copenhagen, even though it is as important as all the others: $10.5 trillion. That is the additional investment needed between now and 2030 to set the world on the path to low-carbon development, according to the International Energy Agency — a number that is far above the pittance the world currently spends on clean-energy research and development. As Jesse Jenkins and Devon Swezey of the think tank Breakthrough Institute wrote on Dec. 7, 'Without measurable progress that dramatically increases global investments in clean energy, we can forget stabilizing global temperatures or atmospheric carbon dioxide at any level.' "
"Beyond the policy wars in the halls of U.N. summits and on Capitol Hill, the battle against climate change requires better and cheaper forms of alternative energy, which will need to be deployed fast. Unfortunately, they don't exist."
Editor's Note: Fortunately, the last statement is incorrect. Decaying organic waste puts 8 times more CO2 into the air each year than human activity. The answer for now is not high-tech alternative energy, recycling, or energy efficiency. The way to reverse the amount of CO2 in the air quickly is to biochar instead of burning forest and agricultural waste. In addition, we need to convert coal-fired power plants to burning biomass. These two actions, undertaken globally, can save our climate from a catastrophe. 12-09
- -We Can Slow Climate Change With Biochar (RenewableEnergyWorld.com)
"The natural balance of the earth has always included carbon storage in the plants and soil. The problem is that we have disrupted that balance. We have burned in one century much of the carbon that nature sequestered over millions of years. Coal is almost pure carbon, gathered by plants and sequestered by natural processes. We need to stop burning it!"
"Carbon-inefficient slash and burn agriculture is practiced by 300-500 million people today. If these people could convert to slash and char methods, we could stop the growth of greenhouse gas in its tracks." 09-09
- -Zurich Tries to Cut Energy Use Drastically (CBS News)
"Zurich, Switzerland's largest city, has a radical goal: to reduce the amount of energy residents use by two-thirds and become a 2,000-watt society."
"If you take all the energy being consumed on earth and divide by the number of people it works out to about 2,000 watts per person, every second of every day. That's roughly the energy it takes to keep 20, 100-watt light bulbs burning. But how many of us are using more than our share?"
"Top of the list are Americans who use 12,000 watts each. Europeans use about half that much - 6,000 watts on average. Africans and Bangladeshis use less than 700." 12-09
- A Low-Carbon Diet (BP.com)
Provides recommendations and examples for stablizing the amount of carbon in the air. "Based on current scientific opinion, BP believes that it is realistic to promote actions that ensure stabilization of atmospheric CO2 concentrations at around 500-550 ppm. This is a considerable challenge, given that global energy demand is expected to double between 2000 and 2050." 12-05
- Algae for Carbon Sequestration (MailonSunday.co.uk)
"The iron feeds algae, which blooms and sucks up damaging carbon dioxide (CO2), then sinks, locking away the harmful greenhouse gas for hundreds of years."
"As a result of the findings, a ground-breaking experiment will be held this month off the British island of South Georgia, 800 miles south east of the Falklands. It will see if the phenomenon could be harnessed to contain rising carbon emissions." 01-09
- Algae for Natural Carbon Sequestration (ScienceDaily.com)
"Engineers have designed a simple, sustainable and natural carbon sequestration solution using algae."
"Bayless, with a team at Ohio University, created a photo bioreactor that uses photosynthesis to grow algae just like a plant would take carbon dioxide up and, through the energy of the sun, convert that into oxygen."
"But what makes it cost effective? The algae can be harvested and made into biodiesel fuel and feed for animals." 06-08
- Autos - A History of Electric Autos (Econogics.com)
Provides a history of electric vehicles in the USA. 5-01
- Autos - Fuel Efficiency (U.S. Department of Energy - www.fueleconomy.gov)
Describes the fuel economy of cars. 8-01
- Autos - Fuel Emissions (Environmental Protection Agency)
Provides a comparison of cars by fuel emissions. 5-01
- Autos - Fuel-Cell Power (CNN - Environmental News Network Staff)
Reports on America's first street-ready car powered by a fuel-cell. Fuel-cells generate no pollution and can be refueled in minutes. 5-01
- Autos - Liquid Nitrogen Power (University of Washington)
Provides the design for a car powered by liquid nitrogen, considered a much more environmental friendly source of energy than electric or gasoline power.
- Autos - The Least Polluting Models (GreenCars.com)
Provides a list of the 12 best automobiles for low pollution levels. 08-08
- Autos - Tips to Improve Fuel Efficiency (U.S. Department of Energy - www.fueleconomy.gov)
Provides tips to improve fuel efficiency of cars. 5-01
- Bicycles (Awesome Library)
Summarizes strengths and weaknesses of bicycles and makes some recommendations. 6-01
- Bio-Fuels From Genetics (MSN.com)
"J. Craig Venter, who gained worldwide fame in 2000 when he mapped the human genetic code, is behind a new start-up called Synthetic Genomics, which plans to create new types of organisms that, ideally, would produce hydrogen, secrete nonpolluting heating oil or be able to break down greenhouse gases." 11-05
- Bio-Fuels From Genetics (VenterInstitute.org)
"According to the U.S. Department of Energy approximately 80 percent of all human-caused carbon dioxide emissions currently come from fossil fuel combustion. The DOE also estimates that world carbon dioxide emissions are projected to rise from 6.1 billion metric tons carbon equivalent in 1999 to 7.9 billion metric tons per year in 2010 and to 9.9 billion metric tons in 2020. This continued consumption of fossil fuels is ample evidence that there is a growing need to eliminate carbon dioxide output into the environment and if possible capture back some of the carbon dioxide associated with global warming. The Biological Energy group is developing and using biological pathways and microbial metabolism to produce new fuels with higher energy output in an environmentally sound fashion. The team uses microbes, microbial genomics, microbial pathways, and plants as potential solutions to carbon sequestration and clean energy production. Current projects include: development of better understanding and reengineering of the photosynthetic pathway to divert the sun’s energy into more hydrogen production as well as reengineering cellulase pathways in certain bacterial to produce ethanol." 11-05
- Bloomberg and Schwarzenegger, Environmental Heroes? (Christian Science Monitor)
"They're also doing big things. Specifically, they're doing big things that Washington has failed to do. In a time of federal policy paralysis, when partisanship-on-crack has made compromise almost impossible, when President George W. Bush's political adviser is a household name but his domestic policy adviser was unknown even in Washington until he was arrested for shoplifting, cities and states are filling the void. Bloomberg and Schwarzenegger happen to be the best examples of this phenomenon as well as the best known. Bloomberg is 65; the Last Action Hero is turning 60; they've got better things to do than bicker and posture. 'These are two exceptional and forceful guys who don't need the job at all; they had pretty damn good lives before they got into politics,' says their mutual friend Warren Buffett. 'They're in office to get things done. And they're doing that a lot better than anyone in D.C.' " 06-07
- Cap and Trade Environmentalism (Time.com)
"For many environmentalists, the idea of essentially recognizing a company's right to pollute — even while requiring them to reduce that pollution — was anathema, as if it made some form of pollution O.K. But you can't argue with results — emissions of SO2 and NO have dropped drastically, as has acid rain. Emissions trading worked because by pricing the air, it helps drive innovation towards pollution control and efficiency, funded in part by the value of the emissions trading market. (Companies that spent to lower their emissions beneath the cap could recoup that investment by selling their excess emissions credits.) Just as importantly, it did so on the cheap, at a cost considerably beneath early estimates." 04-08
- Companies Working to "Green" the Earth (Time.com)
"The steady deterioration of the very climate of our very planet is becoming a war of the first order, and by any measure, the U.S. is losing. Indeed, if we're fighting at all—and by most accounts, we're not—we're fighting on the wrong side. The U.S. produces nearly a quarter of the world's greenhouse gases each year and has stubbornly made it clear that it doesn't intend to do a whole lot about it. Although 174 nations ratified the admittedly flawed Kyoto accords to reduce carbon levels, the U.S. walked away from them. While even developing China has boosted its mileage standards to 35 m.p.g., the U.S. remains the land of the Hummer." 04-08
- Congressional Scorecard (Scorecard)
Provides an environmental scorecard for members of the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives. 6-01
- Corn Ethanol May Accelerate Global Warming (Time.com)
"Worldwide investment in biofuels rose from $5 billion in 1995 to $38 billion in 2005 and is expected to top $100 billion by 2010, thanks to investors like Richard Branson and George Soros, GE and BP, Ford and Shell, Cargill and the Carlyle Group. Renewable fuels has become one of those motherhood-and-apple-pie catchphrases, as unobjectionable as the troops or the middle class."
"But several new studies show the biofuel boom is doing exactly the opposite of what its proponents intended: it's dramatically accelerating global warming, imperiling the planet in the name of saving it. Corn ethanol, always environmentally suspect, turns out to be environmentally disastrous. Even cellulosic ethanol made from switchgrass, which has been promoted by eco-activists and eco-investors as well as by President Bush as the fuel of the future, looks less green than oil-derived gasoline." 04-08
- EPA: Greenhouse Gases Pose a Threat to Health (Time.com)
"So the possibility that in the face of Congressional inaction the EPA might take matters into its own hands and directly regulate greenhouse gases can be seen as a not so subtle threat. Either act on your own, or let an EPA bureaucrat do it for you. Said Frank O'Donnell, president of Clean Air Watch: 'If business groups such as the U.S. Chamber of Commerce continue to oppose Congressional action, they ought to ask themselves, in the immortal words of Clint Eastwood: Do you feel lucky?' "
"The EPA's move on Friday was characterized by the top global warming analyst for the National Wildlife Federation as the 'single largest step the federal government had taken to fight climate change.' " 04-09
- Earth Participated in Earth Hour (MSNBC News)
"From an Antarctic research base to the Great Pyramids of Egypt and beyond, the world switched off the lights on Saturday for Earth Hour, dimming skyscrapers, city streets and some of the world's most recognizable monuments for 60 minutes to highlight the threat of climate change." Editor's Note: Building lights were turned off at 8:30 pm (local time) on March 28th, 2009, to show solidarity with efforts to reduce human contributions to climate change. 03-09
- Eastern States to Cut Emissions (CBS News)
"Nine U.S. states have reached a preliminary agreement on an initiative led by New York Governor George Pataki to freeze power plant emissions at current levels and reduce them by 10 percent by 2020." 8-05
- Editorial: G8 Summit and Global Warming (BBC News)
Journalist Susan Watts argues that Prime Minister Tony Blair must gain three agreements at the G8 in order to be successful. "He must pull off an agreement that says the science [of global warming] is compelling. This is the cornerstone, without which the rest is meaningless."
"Second - concrete moves towards cutting emissions, with a timetable. And third - recognition that urgent action is imperative." 7-05
- Editorial: How Denmark Became Energy Independent (New York Time)
"Unlike America, Denmark, which was so badly hammered by the 1973 Arab oil embargo that it banned all Sunday driving for a while, responded to that crisis in such a sustained, focused and systematic way that today it is energy independent. (And it didn’t happen by Danish politicians making their people stupid by telling them the solution was simply more offshore drilling.)"
"...Danes imposed on themselves a set of gasoline taxes, CO2 taxes and building-and-appliance efficiency standards that allowed them to grow their economy — while barely growing their energy consumption — and gave birth to a Danish clean-power industry that is one of the most competitive in the world today."
"Frankly, when you compare how America has responded to the 1973 oil shock and how Denmark has responded, we look pathetic." 08-08
- Efficient Carbon Sequestration at Existing Coal Plants (American Electric Power)
"American Electric Power (NYSE:AEP) will install carbon capture on two coal-fired power plants, the first commercial use of technologies to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions from existing plants."
"In laboratory testing sponsored by Alstom, EPRI and others, the process has demonstrated the potential to capture more than 90 percent of CO2 at a cost that is far less expensive than other carbon capture technologies. It is applicable for use on new power plants as well as for the retrofit of existing coal-fired power plants."
"The system chills the flue gas, recovering large quantities of water for recycle, and then utilizes a CO2 absorber in a similar way to absorbers used in systems that reduce sulfur dioxide emissions. The remaining low concentration of ammonia in the clean flue gas is captured by cold-water wash and returned to the absorber. The CO2 is compressed for enhanced oil recovery or storage."
"The captured CO2 will be designated for geological storage in deep saline aquifers at the site." 03-07
- Electric Cars - Lack of Demand or Lack of Commitment (MotherJones.com)
Discusses whether there is a shortage of demand for ZEVs (zero emission vehicles) or whether there is a lack of commitment by auto manufactureres to make them. 9-01
- Emissions Reduction Agreement (BBC)
Provides the conditions of a global agreement of 178 nations to reduce carbon emissions and thereby reduce global warming. The agreement, a revision of the Kyoto protocol, was developed and approved in November, 2001. The largest polluter in the world, the USA, refused to participate.
- Energy Efficiency Leadership by California (NRDC.org)
"Since 2001, California has bounced back, fashioning a new framework of utility regulations that places greater emphasis on efficiency than ever before. Through 2008, utility companies plan to spend $2 billion -- a record for any state -- to help Californians save energy. The investment will yield a net gain of $3 billion in economic benefits for the state by reducing utility bills. 'This efficiency campaign will avoid the need to build three large power plants,' says Brian Prusnek, a senior staff member at the California Public Utilities Commission. 'In terms of greenhouse gas emissions, that's the equivalent of taking 650,000 cars off the road. How many other investments yield a 50 percent financial return and reduce pollution?' " 03-06
- Environmental Advocacy News (GreenPeace.org)
Provides news related to pollution, sustainability, global warming, and other key environmental issues. 6-02
- Faith-Based Environmentalism (EMagazine)
"One factor in the resurgence of faith-based environmentalism is the 1993 founding of the National Religious Partnership for the Environment (NRPE) by a former radio talk show host and spokesperson for New York City’s Episcopal Cathedral of St. John the Divine named Paul Gorman (see sidebar interview). NRPE quickly proved its effectiveness by joining together and helping educate such disparate and mainstream bodies as the U.S. Catholic Conference (the policy agency for all Catholic bishops, clergy and parishes), the National Council of Churches of Christ (a federation of Protestant, Eastern Orthodox and African-American denominations), the Coalition on the Environment and Jewish Life (COEJL, an alliance across all four Jewish movements) and the Evangelical Environmental Network (a coalition of evangelical Christian agencies and institutions)." 5-03
- Farm Methane Projects (NativeEnergy.com)
"The project will use an anaerobic digester to capture methane gas from cow manure. By using methane to produce electricity with a 165 kW generator and recovering the waste heat to both heat the digester and reduce the use of oil-fired water heating required on the farm, the farm will consume less heating fuel and will displace electricity on the grid, keeping tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) pollution out of the air right here in your region!" 06-06
- Food Supplement to Reduce Methane Emissions (NewScientist.com)
"Adding a dash of fish oil to animal fodder could help farmers stifle the greenhouse gases wafting from their farmyards, new research shows. Switching animals from regular feed onto a diet of fishy fodder cut the amount of methane in their belches by nearly half."
"According to the US Environmental Protection Agency, belches from farmyard animals account for around 22 per cent of global emissions of the greenhouse gas methane. Volume for volume, methane traps nearly 20 times as much heat as carbon dioxide, making it a potent contributor to global warming." 9-04
- Fuel Cells - Hydrogen Storage for Fuel Cells (Post-Gazette.com - Spice)
Describes a new storage method for hydrogen that uses carbon nanotubes, allowing travel by automobile for thousands of miles on a single tank of hydrogen. 1-01
- G-8 Endorsed Reduction in Emissions by 2050 (Time.com)
"The Group of Eight leading industrial nations on Tuesday endorsed halving world emissions of greenhouse gases by 2050, edging forward in the battle against global warming but stopping short of tough, nearer-term targets." 07-08
- Green Cities (MotherJones.com)
Describes efforts cities are making to use less polluting sources of energy. 9-01
- Green Investment to Create Jobs (AmericanProgress.org)
"Today, the Center for American Progress releases a new report by Dr. Robert Pollin and University of Massachusetts Political Economy Research Institute economists. This report demonstrates how a new Green Recovery program that spends $100 billion over two years would create 2 million new jobs, with a significant proportion in the struggling construction and manufacturing sectors. It is clear from this research that a strategy to invest in the greening of our economy will create more jobs, and better jobs, compared to continuing to pursue a path of inaction marked by rising dependence on energy imports alongside billowing pollution." 10-08
- How to Live a Greener Life (MSNBC News)
"A few ways to help reduce the billions of metric tons of greenhouse-gas emissions created yearly by the U.S." 04-07
- Hybrid TLUD and Rocket Cook Stoves (Indiegogo.com)
"PlanetStove was designed to use locally purchased firewood, so unlike other available biochar-producing stoves, ours does not require villagers to re-cut their wood."
"The PlanetStove is a hybrid. It is a fully functional TLUD, but since a TLUD stove sometimes only burns for an hour, we added a door making it similar to a “Rocket Stove”, a more traditional high-efficiency stove being used in development work. The benefit of this hybrid is that once there's no gas left in wood, villagers can add as more wood. This allows a family to cook for hours, even once the initial gasification is complete." 09-12
- Investors to Limit Development of Power Plants (Christian Science Monitor)
"The environmentally tinged takeover of TXU Corp. illustrates global warming's increased financial relevance."
"A consortium of private investors announced Monday they would pay almost $45 billion to acquire TXU Corp., which generates electricity in the state of Texas. What makes the deal more than just another gigantic financial transaction is that the buyers of the company consulted with environmental groups and agreed to sharply scale back plans to build new coal-fired power plants." 02-07
- Japan Vows to Lead in Fight Against Global Warming (USA Today)
"Japan aims to play a leading role in the post-Kyoto battle on global warming and will seek the full engagement of the USA and China, the world's top two polluters, officials said Tuesday."
"Prime Minister Shinzo Abe will ask his cabinet ministers to develop a package of proposals to present to next year's Group of Eight summit of world leaders which Japan will host, they said." 03-07
- Kyoto Protocol (CRS Report for Congress - Fletcher)
Provides the Kyoto Protocol, a set of agreements supported by most countries to reduce global warming. The USA is the largest polluter. Although the USA signed the Protocol in 1998, the Bush administration but has not agreed to participate in this effort to reduce global warming. 9-02
- Least Polluting Cars of 2005 (MSNBC News)
Lists the "greenest" vehicles of 2005. 4-05
- Least Polluting Cars of 2008 (GreenerCars.org)
Lists the "greenest" vehicles of 2008. 08-08
- Live Earth in the USA (BBC News)
"Washington DC has been added as a venue for the series of Live Earth concerts, organised by former US Vice-President Al Gore to highlight climate change."
"Country couple Garth Brooks and Trisha Yearwood will be among the artists performing on The Mall in the US capital on Saturday."
"Nine cities will stage gigs, including Sydney, Tokyo, Johannesburg, Shanghai, Hamburg, New Jersey and Rio de Janeiro." 07-07
- Mayors Take the Lead on Global Warming (MSNBC News)
"The federal government has been dithering on climate change and energy conservation for years. Lucky for us, America's local leaders are filling the vacuum." 04-07
- New Oil Sources May be Unattractive Options (Christian Science Monitor)
"Oil-sand, oil-shale, and coal-to-oil projects – alternative fuel sources that could enhance US energy security – have always faced one hurdle. They look good only when oil prices are high. Now, they have another challenge: global warming."
"California has enacted new climate-change policies that make energy companies responsible for the carbon emissions not just of their refineries but all phases of oil production, including extraction and transportation. If that notion catches on – at least two Canadian provinces have already signed on to California's plan – then the futures of oil-sand, shale, and coal-to-oil projects may look less attractive." 07-07
- Oil Billionaire Puts His Money on Wind Power (CNN News)
"Billionaire oilman T. Boone Pickens is putting his clout behind renewable energy sources like wind power."
"The legendary entrepreneur and philanthropist on Tuesday unveiled a new energy plan he says will decrease the United States' dependency on foreign oil by more than one-third and help shift American energy production toward renewable natural resources." 07-08
- Power Revolution (US News)
"The high-rolling risk takers who brought you personal computing, the telecommunications revolution, the commercialization of the Internet, and, of course, Google now aim to do nothing less than save planet Earth—and make billions while doing it."
"But Khosla, through his own Khosla Ventures and often working alongside the legendary VC firm Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, where he maintains an affiliation, is in the vanguard of entrepreneurs and financiers who believe their Silicon Valley success stories can be repeated in green energy. They are pouring money and ideas into a new generation of alternatives to fossil fuel—'technologies that scale,' in their words. That is, options that can ramp up to serve a large share of the nation's energy needs because they'll cost less than coal or oil. One estimate is that venture capital funds nearly tripled their investment on green energy last year, putting $2.4 billion to work." 10-07
- President-Elect's Environmental Plan Not Enough (Time.com)
"President-elect Obama campaigned on the promise to spend $150 billion over the next 10 years to support alternative energy, like wind and solar, as well as the green jobs that the sector has the potential to create."
"The problem is, it won't be enough. As ambitious as Obama's campaign promises were — at least compared to his predecessor's — the future state of global energy will demand government policies with a much longer reach, according to alternative-energy leaders. The International Energy Agency's (IEA) annual World Energy Outlook, released Nov. 12, projects that global energy demand will increase by 45% between 2006 and 2030 — and that $26 trillion in power-supply investments will be necessary simply to meet those needs. Barring radical changes in our energy policy — beyond what Obama has pledged — greenhouse gas emissions will rise 45% by 2030, and extreme global warming would be virtually unavoidable." 11-08
- Raising the Bar on Climate Change (Time.com)
"A 2008 Stanford University study found that between one-third and two-thirds of carbon offsets under the U.N.'s Clean Development Mechanism — which oversees offset projects under the Kyoto Protocol — do not represent actual emission cuts. In addition, the USCAP proposal recommends that many of the initial carbon emission allowances under a cap-and-trade system should be given to industry free, rather than auctioned — even though auctioning would push carbon reductions faster." Visitors may call it cap and trade. 05-09
- Raising the Bar on Fighting Climate Change (Time.com)
"The Bush White House was so profoundly hostile to action on global warming that during its eight-year tenure, one could have qualified as a 'green progressive' simply by asserting that climate change was real. In 2007, under these circumstances — perhaps because of them — was born an unlikely alliance between Duke Energy, a North Carolina-based utility that depends heavily on coal, and the Environmental Defense Fund, which together with 30 other green groups and major corporations, formed the U.S. Climate Action Partnership (USCAP)." 01-09
- Reduce Global Warming - Ten Things You Can Do (Sierra Club)
Provides 10 suggestions for reducing use of fossil fuels and increasing the number of trees to reduce global warming. 2-01
- Reducing Your Carbon Footprint (ABC News)
"A carbon footprint is the measure of the amount of carbon dioxide — the major man-made global warming greenhouse gas — that goes into the atmosphere as you go about your daily life." 06-06
- Reducing the Use of Gasoline (Oregonian - Yaden and Durning)
Suggests ways that the use of gasoline can be reduced. "Feebates are point-of-purchase incentives. Consumers pay a fee when buying vehicles with low gas mileage and collect rebates for buying more efficient ones. Such a program could quickly push the market toward more economic designs. With the nation's automobile fuel efficiency at a 20-year low, this is an especially important step." 2-02
- Solar Cooking Facts (SolarCooking.org)
Provides basic facts for efficient solar cooking and boiling water. (Water can also be made safe by heating it to only 150 degrees for 20 minutes, pasteurizing it rather than boiling it.)
- Solar Power - A Short History (MotherJones.com)
Provides an essay describing efforts in the 1970's to move toward solar power. Argues that political forces have since forced it into a slow pace of growth compared to its potential. 9-01
- Solutions Explored by CNN (CNN News)
"Whether it's an individual with an ingenious fix or a company with a revolutionary product, CNN explores some of the solutions to environmental problems -- both in your backyard and around the globe." 02-08
- Solutions for the Environment (Awesome Library - Adams)
Provides a summary of key activities necessary to reduce air and water pollution, reduce the rate of global warming, and more. 1-01
- Stop the Cows and Save the Planet (Time.com)
"Though carbon dioxide is the first gas that comes to mind when we think of greenhouse emissions, pound for pound, methane is more than 20 times more powerful in terms of its global warming potential. Methane doesn't linger in the atmosphere quite as long as CO2, and it's not produced industrially in anywhere near the same quantity, but it does its damage all the same — and livestock toots out a surprisingly large share of it."
"According to one Danish study, the average cow produces enough methane per year to do the same greenhouse damage as four tons of CO2. The average car, by contrast, produces just 2.7 tons. Multiply that by the planet's 1.5 billion cattle and buffalo and 1.8 billion smaller ruminants and you have the methane equivalent of two billion tons of CO2 per year. According to the U.K. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), livestock account for about 4.5% of all of the country's annual greenhouse gas emissions. Globally the figure is thought to be higher — about six percent."
"If you change what goes in, you should be able to change what comes out."
"That's the conclusion reached by a just-released DEFRA study, which not only argues that traditional animal feeds must be replaced, but suggests what the new mealtime fare should be. The big three additions to the livestock lunch-line, according to the DEFRA scientists, should be maize silage, naked oats and grasses higher in sugars."
"Maize silage, which, as its name suggests, is produced by fermenting corn shuckings in a silo or in covered heaps, can reduce tailpipe emissions by as much as 6%. Higher-sugar grasses can mean a 20% reduction, and naked oats—or oats without husks—reduce methane by a whopping 33 percent." 04-11
- Study: Global Warming Can Be Reduced (MSNBC News)
"So what would the world's temperatures, and the planet, look like in 2100 if greenhouse gas emissions continued as is? And if they were cut by 70 percent?"
Editor's Note: The assumptions in this study are more conservative, suggest substantially less damage, than other large scale studies cited in the Awesome Library. Other studies suggest that CO2 must be reduced in the atmosphere, not just added to the atmosphere more slowly, to avert a catastrophe. 04-09
- Study: Where We Plant Trees Is Important (ScienceDaily.com)
"The researchers found that while tropical forests help keep Earth cool by evaporating a great deal of water, northern forests tend to warm the Earth because they absorb a lot of sunlight without losing much moisture." 01-06
- Supporting Small Family-Owned Forests (CNN News)
"Unfortunately, the [Copenhagen] summit's forest initiatives provided little help to the more than 10 million people like me who manage family-owned forest land in the United States. Since such forests make up more than a third of all forests in the nation, they have the potential to play a huge -- and growing -- role in reducing carbon emissions. Any government action on climate change in this country needs to pay attention to them."
"Family forest owners like me provide about 60 percent of all U.S. lumber supplies. With the slow housing construction market, and timber prices near record lows, it's a great time to direct forest owners toward conservation-minded forest practices."
"Providing forest owners with a modest income stream for carbon-enhancing forest activities is the key." 02-09
- The "Green Energy Gold Rush" (Time.com)
"Global investors plowed $148 billion into new wind, solar and other alternative energy assets last year, in what the United Nations describes as a 'green energy gold rush' gaining speed the last several years." 07-08
- The Need for Carbon Sequestration of Coal-Fired Energy Plants (CNN News)
"Burning coal contributes half of the excess carbon dioxide (CO2) polluting the earth's atmosphere, a statistic not lost on the hundreds of climate change protesters camping in a grassy field near Kingsnorth power station in Kent, England this week." 08-08
- Two-Wheel Transporter - Segway Ginger Description (Time.com)
Describes how the electric, two-wheel personal transporter works. "Not only does it have no brakes, it also has no engine, no throttle, no gearshift and no steering wheel. And it can carry the average rider for a full day, nonstop, on only five cents' worth of electricity." The device is expected to be available commercially toward the end of 2002 and is expected to sell for around 3,000 dollars. It is designed to replace an auto for short trips. The device stays upright due to gyros. 11-01
- Two-Wheel Transporter - Segway Ginger Picture (HowStuffWorks.com)
Provides details of how an electric, two-wheel personal transporter works. The device is expected to be available commercially toward the end of 2002 and is expected to sell for around 3,000 dollars. It is designed to replace an auto for short trips. The device stays upright due to gyros. 11-01
- U.S. to Cut Emissions of Some Pollutants (New York Times)
"The plan will address short-lived pollutants like soot (also referred to as black carbon), methane and hydrofluorocarbons that have an outsize influence on global warming, accounting for 30 to 40 percent of global warming. Soot from diesel exhausts and the burning of wood, agricultural waste and dung for heating and cooking causes an estimated two million premature deaths a year, particularly in the poorest countries."
"Researchers have identified about a dozen ways to significantly control black carbon and methane emissions. Soot can be reduced by installing filters on diesel engines, replacing traditional cookstoves with more efficient models, modernizing brick kilns and banning the open burning of agricultural waste. Methane can be captured from oil and gas wells, leaky pipelines, coal mines, municipal landfills, wastewater treatment plants, manure piles and rice paddies." 02-12
- United Nations Climate Change Conference (CBS News)
The United Nations Climate Change Conference will be held in Copenhagen on December 7 - 18, 2009. 03-09
- West Coast Unites for Cleaner Air (CBS News)
"Despite an effort by auto industry lobbyists to kill the move, two Pacific Northwest States — Oregon and Washington — are getting ready to adopt California's new vehicle emission standards to reduce greenhouse gases."
"When that happens, California's newly implemented emissions standards — the toughest in the United States — will be in effect along the entire West Coast from Canada to Mexico." 8-05
- What Kids Can Do to Help Stop Global Warming (EPA)
"Climate change may be a big problem, but there are many little things we can do to make a difference. If we try, most of us can do our part to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases that we put into the atmosphere." 01-07
- What the Public Doesn't Know About Climate Change (Time.com)
"In a paper that came out Oct. 23 in Science, John Sterman — a professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology's (MIT) Sloan School of Management — wrote about asking 212 MIT grad students to give a rough idea of how much governments need to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions by to eventually stop the increase in the concentration of carbon in the atmosphere. These students had training in science, technology, mathematics and economics at one of the best schools in the world — they are probably a lot smarter than you or me. Yet 84% of Sterman's subjects got the question wrong, greatly underestimating the degree to which greenhouse gas emissions need to fall. When the MIT kids can't figure out climate change, what are the odds that the broader public will?" 05-09
- Campaigning Guides (BBC News)
"Here on Action Network, we want you to be able to take action on problems that affect to you."
"We've written guides to help you get to grips with organising a campaign. Find out about everything from setting up a group and organising a petition, to fundraising and becoming a charity." 07-07
- Cap and Trade Game (MSNBC News)
Game simulates "cap and trade" to reduce air pollution. Editor's Note: The designers of the game assume that the cost for reducing emissions may always be high. 11-09
- Make a Donation With a Click (GreenChoices.com)
You can donate to reducing global warming by clicking on the leaf each day. Each of the sponsors has committed to providing a penny toward reducing global warming for each click a person makes, counting no more than one per day per person. 8-01
- Purchase Renewable Energy Credits (RECs) to Neutralize Your Carbon Contribution (NativeEnergy.com)
Allows you to purchase RECs to keep tons of CO2 out of the air each year to offset your fossil fuel use. 06-06
- Solar Cooking Design for Villages (SolarCooking.org)
Provides the design for a very effective solar oven, using foil, cardboard, and plastic.