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## Electromagnetic

News
1. Electricity and Magnetism (Georgia State University)
Provides a comprehensive and concise description of basic topics in electricity and magnetism. 02-08

2. Maxwell's Equations (Georgia State University)
Provides Gauss' law for electricity, Gauss' law for magnetism, faraday's law of induction, and Ampere's law. 02-08

3. Maxwell's Equations (Wikipedia.org)
"In electromagnetism, Maxwell's equations are a set of four equations that were first presented as a distinct group in 1884 by Oliver Heaviside in conjunction with Willard Gibbs. These equations had appeared throughout James Clerk Maxwell's 1861 paper entitled On Physical Lines of Force."

"Those equations describe the interrelationship between electric field, magnetic field, electric charge, and electric current. Although Maxwell himself was the originator of only one of these equations (by virtue of modifying an already existing equation), he derived them all again independently in conjunction with his molecular vortex model of Faraday's 'lines of force'." 02-08

Papers
1. Electromagnetic Fields (World Health Organization)
"Electric fields are created by differences in voltage: the higher the voltage, the stronger will be the resultant field. Magnetic fields are created when electric current flows: the greater the current, the stronger the magnetic field. An electric field will exist even when there is no current flowing. If current does flow, the strength of the magnetic field will vary with power consumption but the electric field strength will be constant." 10-05

2. Light (Wikipedia.org)
"Light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength that is visible to the eye, or in a more general sense, any electromagnetic radiation in the range from infrared to ultraviolet." 10-04

3. Nobel Prizes for Physics Announced (CBS News)
"France's Albert Fert and German Peter Gruenberg won the 2007 Nobel Prize in physics on Tuesday for their discovery of giant magnetoresistance, a process used by billions [sic] of people on their computers and digital music players."

"In 1988 Fert and Gruenberg each independently discovered a totally new physical effect, GMR. In this effect, very weak changes in magnetism generate larger changes in electrical resistance. This is how information stored magnetically on a hard disk can be converted to electrical signals that the computer reads." 10-07

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