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Forest Waste

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  1. Biochar from Forest Waste or Residue
  1. -11-28-15 Forest Practices a Major Source of Carbon Emissions (
      A report from the Center for Sustainable Economy and Geos Institute states that "despite legal requirements to do so, the Oregon Global Warming Commission has failed to track and evaluate the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from forest practices or follow through on commitments to develop and promote alternative management techniques that can transform these lands from a net source to a net sink for atmospheric carbon. The key culprit: a flawed international greenhouse gas accounting protocol that lumps all forest owners into one aggregate 'forest sector' and allows the timber industry to take credit for carbon sequestered on forests protected by non-profits, small landowners, and public agencies."

      " The timber industry’s operations on its lands in western Oregon are likely one of the State’s largest sources of GHG emissions - second only to transportation." 11-15

  2. Comparison of Oil and Natural Gas Costs With Biomass Costs (
      Provides a Comparison. 04-15

  3. Cost Factors in Harvesting Forest Residue (
      "Currently, the most cost-effective harvesting system for recovering forest residue for biomass is in-woods chipping as part of a conventional logging or thinning operation. Bulk vans, due to their relatively light weight and large capacity, are generally considered to be the most costefficient mode of transporting reprocessed woody biomass provided the access roads are suitable for these over-the-highway carriers. At current prices, timber harvesting contractors are not likely to actively pursue purely biomass-related projects." 04-15

  4. Cost Factors in Harvesting Forest Residue (Virginia Tech)
      Provides a cost analysis sheet. 04-15

  5. Forest Residue Amounts Available (
      "Primary timber processing facilities (i.e. sawmills and plywood mills) in the United States generate large quantities of wood residues in many forms, such as bark, chips, sawmill slabs and edgings, sawdust, and peeler log cores. In 1991, it was estimated that 26 million tons of bark and 74.5 million tons of wood residues were generated by primary timber processing facilities in the U.S. However, most of these wood residues were already being used as fuel or as fiber raw material to produce other products, primarily pulp and paper products."

      A study completed in 1991 in California indicated that California has 5.2 million tons of forest slash, 5.5 million tons of lumber mill waste, and 7.7 million tons of chaparrel available as biomass. 04-15

  6. Forest Residue Amounts Available (
      " The cost of forest residue can be as low as $15 to $25 per ton, or between $1.46 and $2.43/million Btu (MMBtu); however, the average price in most parts of the country is roughly $30/ton, or $2.92/MMBtu.16,17"

      "Potential capacity is concentrated in the western and southeastern regions of the United States." A color coded map is provided. 04-15

  7. Forest Residue Amounts Available (
      "Forest residues and wood wastes represent a large potential resource for energy production and include forest residues, forest thinnings, and primary mill residues. Even though the costs for these fuels are usually greater than coal, they reduce fuel price risk by diversifying the fuel supply; result in significantly lower sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions than coal; and can easily be cofired. 05-15

  8. Forest Residue Pile Emissions Calculator (
      Calculates the amount of emissions from burning piles of woody biomass. 05-15

  9. Intense Forest Wildfires Can Power More Climate Change (Washington Post)
      "According to one 2010 study, between the years 1997 and 2009, half a billion metric tons worth of net carbon per year came from global fires (these were emissions that, the study said, 'may not be balanced by regrowth following fire')."

      "There is, at least, one partial bit of good news here. Forest managers are not powerless in the face of stronger wildfires — there are things they can do to partly curb intense fires and, thus, their carbon emissions. It is generally considered, for instance, that many years of ill-advised 'fire suppression' tactics have actually worsened the U.S. wildfire situation, by contributing even more to the volume of fuels that can combust in forests." 05-15

  10. Low-Cost Processing of Forest Residue into Biochar (
      "Currently, the total costs of disposing of forest slash heaps (the collections of wood waste) approximate a billion dollars a year in the United States, according to Knoth."

      "The kiln restricts the amount of oxygen that can reach the biomass, which is transformed by pyrolysis into biochar. The woody waste is heated up to temperatures of about 1,100 degrees Fahrenheit (600 Celsius), as the kiln transforms some 800 pounds of wood into 200 pounds of biochar in less than two hours. 'We also extinguish with water because it helps keep oxygen out and also activates the charcoal [making it more fertile in soil].' " 11-15

  11. One Percent Increase in Organic Matter Makes a Big Difference (
      "One percent of organic matter in the top six inches of soil can hold about 27,000 gallons of water per acre. Increasing organic matter increases the holding capacity for water making your land more resilient to extreme weather." 05-15

  12. PAHs in Biochar (
      Provides results of studies on the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in biochar. PAHs are undesirable in agriculture applications. 05-15

  13. Reducing the Cost of Biofuels (
      "The review identified key biomass management practices for croplands; grasslands (including Conservation Reserve Program land); forest ecosystems; and for algae and aquatic feedstocks." 04-15

  14. State of the Biochar Industry 2013 (
      "This report is made possible by the contributions of over 150 individuals who responded to IBI surveys in summer 2013." 07-15

  15. The Role of Forests in Climate Change (Center for Global Development)
      "Global development is not possible without a stable climate, and a stable climate is not possible without forest conservation (see figure 1)."

      "Forests exert a profound influence on the atmosphere. Terrestrial vegetation, dominated by tropical forests, breathes in 123 billion tons of carbon every year through photosynthesis, and breathes out nearly as much through respiration.[1] This is 15 times more than all annual emissions from burning fossil fuels. The world’s forests cycle so much carbon that their seasonal growth and dormancy is responsible for the sawtooth pattern seen in charts showing rising carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere...." 12-15

  16. Where Does Carbon Go After a Fire? (
      "Scientists have uncovered one of nature's long-kept secrets—the true fate of charcoal in the world's soils. The ability to determine the fate of charcoal is critical to knowledge of the global carbon budget, which in turn can help understand and mitigate climate change. However, until now, researchers only had scientific guesses about what happens to charcoal once it's incorporated into soil. They believed it stayed there. Surprisingly, most of these researchers were wrong." 12-19


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