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Swine Flu

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  1. Pandemic
Materials
  1. Drawings of the Flu Virus (RKM)
      Provides colorful drawings. 05-09

Multimedia
  1. -04-30-09 Dr. Bresee with the Centers for Disease Control (YouTube.com)
      "In this video, Dr. Joe Bresee with the CDC Influenza Division describes swine flu - its signs and symptoms, how it's transmitted...." 04-09

  2. -04-30-09 Use of a Face Mask (YouTube.com)
      Describes how to use a disposable N95 respirator. It should only be used once. 04-09

News
  1. -001 Flu Shots Locator and Flu Trends in the U.S. (Google.org)
      "We've found that certain search terms are good indicators of flu activity. Google Flu Trends uses aggregated Google search data to estimate flu activity in your state up to two weeks faster than traditional systems." 04-09

  2. -02-06-10 Swine Flu Seems to Be Almost Over (Time.com)
      "Is the U.S. swine flu epidemic over? Federal health officials won't go so far as to say that, but on Friday they reported for the fourth week in a row that no states had widespread flu activity." 02-10

  3. -04-24-09 Swine Flu in U.S. and Mexico Match (CNN News)
      "U.S. health officials expressed concern Friday that a swine flu virus that has infected eight people in the United States matches samples of a virus that has killed at least 68 people in Mexico."

      "Sixty-eight people have died in Mexico City, Cordova said at a news conference. More than 1,000 other people have gotten sick...." 04-09

  4. -04-30-09 Effectiveness of Antiviral Drugs Questioned (HealthNewsReview.org)
      "This story discusses findings of a meta-analysis, or review of many studies, of anti-viral medications conducted by European researchers and published in the Lancet. According to this review of 51 randomized controlled trials, antiviral drugs such as Tamiflu are only effective in reducing symptoms of influenza type A and B by about 50%, and not as effective in the cases of "flu-like" illnesses. Doctors can and should test patients to determine if they have influenza type A and B viruses before prescribing anti-viral medications such as Tamiflu; the drugs should not be taken for flu-like symptoms and non-life threatening influenza." 04-09

  5. -04-30-09 Eight Ways to Get Your Family Ready for Swine Flu (U.S. News)
      "Pandemic flu plans arenít just for governments: Families need them too, says Ted Epperly, president of the American Academy of Family Physicians and a family doc in Boise, Idaho. And parents need to prepare now." 04-09

  6. -04-30-09 Mexico Closes Down (Time.com)
      "Mexico is telling citizens to stay home, urging businesses to close for five days and suspending government services as the World Health Organization warns the swine flu outbreak is on the brink of becoming a global epidemic." 04-09

  7. -04-30-09 Pandemic Flu Checklist for Families (PandemicFlu.com)
      "You can prepare for an influenza pandemic now. You should know both the magnitude of what can happen during a pandemic outbreak and what actions you can take to help lessen the impact of an influenza pandemic on you and your family. This checklist will help you gather the information and resources you may need in case of a flu pandemic." 04-09

  8. -05-01-09 How Long Will It Take to Develop a Vaccine? (Time.com)
      "With the first reported death from the 2009 H1N1 flu, or swine flu, in the U.S., the Federal Government and flu-vaccine manufacturers are preparing for the possibility that a new vaccine will be necessary to control the outbreak. Should the call for vaccine production come from health officials, both traditional and newer, faster vaccine-making methods could be employed."

      "But even if the CDC's seed stock of virus were to be released to vaccine makers today, it would take the companies anywhere from four to six months before the first inoculation could be ready for public use."

      "At the biotech company Novavax, researchers are testing the use of virus-like particles (VLP), instead of the virus itself, to stimulate a flu immune response. Using this method, a vaccine for the 2009 H1N1 virus could be in production in 10 to 12 weeks, rather than the usual four to six months." 05-09

  9. -10-06-09 Children Begin Receiving Swine Flu Shots (ABC News)
      "The first doses of H1N1 flu vaccine were given to children today, a day after health care workers began getting doses in what is likely to be the largest flu vaccination campaign in U.S. history." 10-09

  10. -10-19-09 Life-Saving H1N1 Drub Unavailable to Most (CBS News)
      "New doses of the H1N1 flu vaccine will arrive across the country this week. But what about those who are already infected?"

      "The virus can make healthy people suddenly very ill. Some doctors say they'd use an experimental drug to help rescue patients on the brink - if only they were allowed, CBS News correspondent Wyatt Andrews reports." 10-09

  11. -Antiviral Drugs to Treat Swine Flu (CDC)
      "There are four influenza antiviral drugs approved for use in the United States (oseltamivir, zanamivir, amantadine and rimantadine). The swine influenza A (H1N1) viruses that have been detected in humans in the United States and Mexico are resistant to amantadine and rimantadine so these drugs will not work against these swine influenza viruses. Laboratory testing on these swine influenza A (H1N1) viruses so far indicate that they are susceptible (sensitive) to oseltamivir [Tamiflu ģ] and zanamivir [Relenza ģ]." 04-09

  12. -Swine Flu Update for the U.S. (CDC.gov)
      "Human cases of swine influenza A (H1N1) virus infection have been identified in the United States. Human cases of swine influenza A (H1N1) virus infection also have been identified internationally. The current U.S. case count is provided below." 04-09

  13. 05-12-09 WHO: Swine Flu Is Likely a Pandemic (U.S. News)
      "This may be just the first weeks of a three-to-five-year pandemic, with wave after wave of sickness and death."

      "This virus causes 1.4 to 1.6 new cases of flu from each infected person, on average, which is similar to or lower than the pandemics of 1918, 1957, and 1968."

      "These numbers mean that swine flu/H1N1 is acting like a pandemic flu, and that we should act as if itís a pandemic, too." 05-09

  14. Emergency Updates on Public Health Emergencies (Healthcare Facilities Partnership)
      The Partnership is designed "to improve surge capacity and enhance community and hospital preparedness for public health emergencies in defined geographic areas." 04-09

Papers
  1. -Children Under 10 Will Need Two Swine Flu Shots (U.S. News)
      "Still confused about what's going to happen with swine flu shots next month? You're not alone. The federal government and individual states still haven't told us how they're going to distribute the vaccine, or when. Yesterday's chirpy press release from the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases made it easy to think that all children will need just one swine flu immunization, but that's not true. The younger a child is, the less well his or her immune system responded to the swine flu vaccine in clinical trials. So children under age 10 will need two doses of swine flu vaccine, one month apart, according to the NIAID itself." 09-09

  2. -How to Not Get H1N1 Flu (Time.com)
      "Keeping your hands clean can stop viruses that are living and breeding around you from causing infection." 09-09

  3. -One-Stop Access to Pandemic Flu Information (PandemicFlu.gov)
      "The CDC is actively investigating isolated human cases of swine influenza A (H1N1) in several states (CA, TX, OH, KS, NY) and is working closely with Canada and Mexico and with the WHO. The CDC is continuously updating investigation information." 04-09

  4. -Study: Face Masks Can Be Effective (CNN News)
      "From Mexico to China, people around the world have worn face masks to protect against swine flu, also known as the H1N1 virus. The problem? Experts could never say for sure whether such masks actually help you stay healthy."

      "Now, the largest study to date on the subject suggests they do. When sick people and their families wear surgical face masks and wash their hands within the first 36 hours of symptoms, healthy family members are indeed less likely to get seasonal flu, researchers say. They think the results may apply to H1N1 as well."

      "However, those who started using masks or washing their hands after the 36-hour time period had passed saw no benefit." 09-09

  5. -Swine Flu Update Worldwide (World Health Organization)
      "Human cases of swine influenza A (H1N1) virus infection have been identified in the United States. Human cases of swine influenza A (H1N1) virus infection also have been identified internationally. The current U.S. case count is provided below." 04-09

  6. A H1N1 Flu To Do (and Don't Do) List (CNN News)
      "Experts say that flu activity is higher-than-normal for this time of year and almost all of it is due to H1N1."

      " 'From what I've seen, I actually believe it to be more contagious,' [than seasonal flu] says Litman. [Dr. Nathan Litman is the chief of pediatric infectious diseases at the Children's Hospital at Montefiore, in New York City.] Often with the seasonal flu that's circulating, a percentage of the population has some immunity to it. With H1N1, it looks like most people -- other than the elderly -- have no immunity to it, and that may be why it appears more contagious, he says."

      "People who are older than 60 may have been exposed to a swine-flu-like virus in the distant past, which is giving them an edge with this pandemic."

      " 'Get immunized, wash your hands, cover your mouth and nose if you're sneezing or coughing, stay home if you're sick, and if any warning signs come up -- difficulty breathing, not responsive as usual, unable to take fluids, or after a day or two of the fever coming down and having more fever and cough again -- see the doctor,' says Litman." 10-09

  7. Antiviral Drugs for Influenza (Flu) (CDC.gov)
      "Although yearly vaccination with the flu vaccine is the best way to prevent the flu, antiviral drugs can be effective for prevention and treatment of the flu." 04-09

  8. FDA Approves a Vaccine for Swine Flu, H1N1 (CBS News)
      "The Food and Drug Administration approved the new swine flu vaccine Tuesday, a long-anticipated step as the government works to get vaccinations under way next month." 09-09

  9. Flu Vaccinations (CDC.gov)
      "The single best way to protect against the flu is to get vaccinated each year."

      Editor's Note: As of April 27th, a vaccine for "swine flu" had not been made available. 04-09

  10. H1N1 Flu's Genes Undetected for a Decade (CBS News)
      "Genes included in the new H1N1 (swine) flu have been circulating undetected in pigs for at least a decade, according to researchers who have sequenced the genomes of more than 50 samples of the virus."

      "The findings suggest that in the future pig populations will need to be closely monitored for emerging influenza viruses, according to the report, released Friday by the journal Science." 05-09

  11. H1N1 Information for Nurses (NursingWorld.org)
      On June 11, 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) raised the pandemic level from Phase 5 to Phase 6, signifying that there is sustained spread of the novel 2009 H1N1 strain in 2 or more regions. This geographic implication means that a pandemic has begun, but the severity of the pandemic and which populations will be most at risk remains unknown."

      "The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) will be working with international health agencies (WHO, the Pan-American Health Organization) to monitor the influenza activity in the Southern Hemisphere, which entered its flu season in early June (opposite seasons as Northern Hemisphere), for clues as to how the pandemic strain of H1N1 will behave."

  12. Obama Declares Swine Flu a National Emergency (MSNBC News)
      "President Barack Obama has signed a proclamation declaring swine flu a national emergency, the White House said Saturday." 10-09

  13. Obama: U.S. Response to Swine Flu Justified (MSNBC News)
      "The strain of flu virus that is alarming the world is so new and poorly understood that it justifies the U.S. government's multi-pronged efforts to fight it, President Barack Obama said Saturday." 05-09

  14. Respirators for Pandemics (UCLA)
      "The N95 rating [for face masks] meets the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for protection against tuberculosis and anthrax spores, as well as the most foreseeable bioweaponry, which ranges in size from 1.0 to 5.0 microns. So the N95s are more than capable of preventing their inhalation."

      "Even in a biological attack, the masks have major shortcomings. Like fit."

      " 'Does it have a nose piece like a metal clip you can bend over your nose? That's a better model because the big kicker here is getting a good fit,' Utgoff says."

      "Bad fits are deadly. Contaminated air breathed from around the unfiltered edges instead of through the N95-rated material undermines the purpose of a mask."

      "And, got a beard? 'Shave it,' says Breysse, who recommends duct-taping the mask to your face to make a good fit." 07-07

  15. Study: Preventing H1N1 From Spreading(U.S. News)
      "Perhaps I should take a hint from a coworker who yesterday forwarded me a study showing that H1N1, the virus that causes swine flu, remains contagious long after those first few can't-get-out-of-bed days."

      "The study, published last week in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, found that H1N1 is most contagious within the first three days after symptoms appear but that infected individuals could still spread the disease after a week."

      "Bottom line: If you've got flulike symptoms, do your best to avoid close contact with others for several days or even a week. Skip family gatherings, especially if you know that certain high-risk individuals may be present: kids younger than 5 years old; seniors over 65; pregnant women; and those with asthma, diabetes, impaired immunity, or heart or lung conditions. While the CDC no longer recommends that we stay home from work or school until all our symptoms are gone, the agency does still have this recommendation in place for healthcare workers or those visiting relatives in the hospital." 10-09

  16. Swine Flu (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
      "Swine Influenza (swine flu) is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by type A influenza that regularly cause outbreaks of influenza among pigs. Swine flu viruses do not normally infect humans, however, human infections with swine flu do occur, and cases of human-to-human spread of swine flu viruses has been documented." 04-09

  17. Swine Flu (Wikipedia.org)
      "Swine influenza (Swine flu) refers to influenza cases that are caused by Orthomyxoviruses endemic to populations of pigs. The viruses are referred to as Swine influenza viruses (SIV). The distinction is not based on phylogeny. SIV strains isolated to date have been classified either as Influenzavirus C or one of the various subtypes of the genus Influenzavirus A.[1]" 04-09

  18. Swine Flu No Worse than Regular Flu (CNN News)
      "The swine flu virus that has sparked fear and precautions worldwide appears to be no more dangerous than the regular flu virus that makes its rounds each year, U.S. officials said Monday."

      "There are still concerns that the virus could return in the fall, in the typical flu season, as a stronger strain." 05-09

  19. Swine Flu's Fall Return (U.S. News)
      "Despite the risk of such unforeseen consequences, there are three major actions the government needs to take now that will shape what happens in the fall." 05-09

  20. Ten Ways to Reduce Risk of Flu (Time.com)
      "Whether you decide to get a flu shot this year or not, it's important to take steps to prevent yourself from getting the seasonal flu, as well as H1N1, commonly referred to as swine flu." 10-09

  21. What If Swine Flu Becomes a Pandemic? (CNN News)
      Swine flu is not currently a pandemic. If it became one, this is what could happen: "The disease would skip from city to city over an 18- to 24-month period, infecting more than a third of the population. World Health Organization officials believe that as many as 1.5 billion people around the globe would seek medical care, and nearly 30 million would seek hospitalization. Based on the last pandemic and current world population, as many as 7 million people could die, epidemiologists said." 04-09

Purchase Resources
  1. Face Masks (BAProducts.com)
      "The Air-Aid Mask protects you from noxious odors, chemicals, paint odors, and communicable diseases." Awesome Library does not endorse these products, but provides them as examples. 03-06

  2. Respirators for Pandemics (Nextag.com)
      Provides sources for N95 respirators or face masks. The 3m 8210 Plus N95 should be considered. Awesome Library does not endorse these products but provides them as examples. 04-09

   
   


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