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Presidential Election 2000


  • American Presidents
  • Politics and Elections
    Papers
    1. Boies, David (Time.com - Okrent)
        Provides a glimpse of the life style and background of David Boies, lawyer for Al Gore in the 2000 presidential election, Napster, the U.S. Justice Department (against Microsoft), and many more famous cases. 12-00

    2. Both State and Federal Supreme Courts Were Wrong (Wall Street Journal - Rosen)
        Expresses the opinion, based on legal grounds, that both the Florida Supreme Court and the U.S. Supreme Court violated their appropriate roles in their rulings on the Presidential election of 2000. "By promulgating its own rules after the fact, Judge Posner argues, the Florida court was not perfecting the democratic system, as many have claimed, but undermining one of its fundamental pillars: that succession take place according to procedures that are 'fixed in advance, objective, administrable, and clear.'" "No less disturbing as a matter of judicial philosophy--and seeming partisan favoritism--was the [U.S.] Supreme Court's obvious unwillingness to let the election dispute work itself out in Florida or, if need be, in Congress." 11-01

    3. Chads - Legality of Incomplete Punches (CNN Election 2000)
        Provides a history of recent court cases where the chad, the piece of paper that is supposed to be punched out on the ballot, remains in the ballot when it goes through a machine for counting. Such votes that have been punched, but remain in the ballot, are not counted by the machine. The legal precedent has been to accept "hanging" chad or "depressed" chad as votes when counting by hand. 11-00

    4. Close Elections and Tips for Success (Christian Science Monitor - Kiefer)
        Suggests, based on past presidential elections, priorities for a new president. 11-00

    5. Count of Presidential Votes in Florida - Florida Ballots Project (National Organization for Research)
        "A group of the largest news organizations in the United States selected NORC to provide the definitive picture of the Florida ballots in the uncertified presidential election of November 2000." Provides information on the process used to count votes to determine who would have won the election if all votes had been counted. Statistically, the election was a tie or inconclusive because of the small percent of difference in results. 11-01

    6. Decision by the Florida Supreme Court - Explanation (CNN - Van Susteren)
        Explains the role of the Florida Supreme Court to interpret contradictions in the law related to the presidential election. 11-00

    7. Election 2000 - Argument for Bush in the U.S. Supreme Court (McNeil-Lehrer Productions - PBS NewsHour)
        Provides arguments by Theodore Olson that the Florida Supreme Court violated the U.S. Constitution by extending the deadline for vote results to permit hand recounts in the presidential election. 11-00

    8. Election 2000 - Argument for Gore in the U.S. Supreme Court (McNeil-Lehrer Productions - PBS NewsHour)
        Provides Laurence Tribe's arguments to the U.S. Supreme Court. He argued that the Florida Supreme Court acted properly and did not violate the U.S. Constitution by extending the deadline for vote results to permit hand recounts in the presidential election. 11-00

    9. Election 2000 - British Perspective on the Controversy (British Broadcasting Corporation News)
        Provides a summary of the presidential election news in Florida. 11-00

    10. Election 2000 - Decision by the Florida Supreme Court - Explanation (CNN - Williams)
        Explains the basis of the Florida Supreme Court ruling regarding the acceptance of hand recounted ballots. 11-00

    11. Election 2000 - Dimpled Chads Count in Texas (CNN - Jackson)
        Reports that Texas law recognizes a dimpled chad, an indentation in a ballot, as a valid vote. 11-00

    12. Election 2000 - Election News (St. Petersburg Times)
        Provides news from the day Bush was recognized as President. 11-00

    13. Election 2000 - Florida (11-18) Eyewitness to Hand Counting of Votes (CNN - Savidge)
        A member of CNN's staff provides an eyewitness description of the hand counts of votes in Palm Beach County. Votes in the presidential election are counted by teams that are composed of a counter, a Republican observer, and a Democrat observer. 11-00

    14. Election 2000 - Florida (11-22) Legislature Could Overturn the Vote (CNN - Schneider)
        Schneider points out how the Florida legislature could, according to an old law, reverse the final vote if Gore becomes the winner in Florida. 11-00

    15. Election 2000 - Florida (12-4) Ruling Against Hand Recounts (CNN)
        Provides the finding by Judge Sauls that Gore has not proven the need for hand recounts in several Florida counties. 12-00

    16. Election 2000 - Florida (12-4) U.S. Supreme Court Asks for Clarification (CNN - Van Susteren)
        Discusses the finding of the U.S. Supreme Court regarding whether the Florida Supreme Court exceeded its authority. The U.S. Supreme Court asked the Florida Supreme Court to clarify the basis of their decision to change the deadline to allow hand recounts in the presidential election. 12-00

    17. Election 2000 - Florida (12-4) U.S. Supreme Court Asks for Clarification (FindLaw)
        Provides the finding of the U.S. Supreme Court regarding whether the Florida Supreme Court exceeded its authority. The U.S. Supreme Court asked the Florida Supreme Court to clarify the basis of their decision to change the deadline to allow hand recounts in the presidential election. 12-00

    18. Election 2000 - Florida (12-7) Decision to Appoint Electors (St. Petersburg Times)
        Provides the announcement by the Florida Legislature, dominated by Republicans, that it plans to elect its own slate of electors for president. 12-00

    19. Election 2000 - Florida - Court Petitions Related to the Presidential Election (Jurist - Sutin)
        Provides copies of the latest court petitions related to the presidential election. Also includes key Florida laws. (Many documents are in PDF format.) 11-00

    20. Election 2000 - Florida Election Laws (State of Florida - The 2000 Florida Statutes, Title IX, Chapter 102)
        Provides the portions of Florida law that apply to the presidential elections. 11-00

    21. Election 2000 - Florida Hand Recounts Favor Democrats (AltaVista - washingtonpost.com)
        Describes how the punch type voting machines in counties with larger populations results in more uncounted votes because of the buildup of chads in the machines. Democrats have gained more votes in the counties with larger populations, such as Palm Beach and Miami-Dade, and so they will benefit more from recounts compared to Republicans. 11-00

    22. Election 2000 - Florida Seminole County (St. Petersburg Times)
        Summarizes the contest in Seminole County in which election officials improperly (or illegally) placed information on Republican absentee ballot applications to help ensure that the ballots would not be rejected. Courts rejected the suit. 12-00

    23. Election 2000 - International Elections Expert Comments (CNN)
        Provides an interview with an expert from the Carter Center, an organization that monitors and assists with ensuring fair and democratic elections globally. Costello states that ballot design can affect the vote. A person may intend to vote one way but, because of a misleading ballot, vote a different way. In such cases, he says, the outcome of the election would not reflect the choice of the people. Costello states that the Carter Center staff work hard to ensure that the ballot design is fair. 11-00

    24. Election 2000 - Polls - Opinions About the Presidential Election Process (Pollingreport.com)
        Provides the results from several public opinion polls. 11-00

    25. Election 2000 - Pro-Bush Editorial - Why the Public (Correctly) Thinks Bush Won (Republican National Committee)
        Provides an essay that says Bush won on November 7th, even after a machine recount. 11-00

    26. Election 2000 - Sources for Campaign 2000 (Searcher - Murnane)
        Provides sources of information related to the Presidential election for 2000. 8-00

    27. Election 2000 - U.S. Supreme Court Chose Bush (St. Petersburg Times - Greenhouse)
        Discusses the U.S. Supreme Court decision to stop the vote counting in Florida. 12-00

    28. Election 2000 - U.S. Supreme Court Ruling - More Suits Expected (St. Petersburg Times - Pittman)
        Provides predictions from experts on the U.S. Constitution that the equal protection ruling from the U.S. Supreme Court will result in suits from groups who are forced to use less reliable methods of counting ballots. 12-00

    29. Election 2000 - U.S. Supreme Court Ruling - Wrong (Salon - Kamiya)
        Provides an editorial that five of the justices of the U.S. Supreme Court acted with partisan self-interest. 12-00

    30. Gore, Albert (Encyclopedia.com)
        Provides a short biography of the former Vice President of the United States. 5-02

    31. Green Party of the United States (GreenPartyUS.org)
        Provides the home page of the Green Party of the United States. The party selected Ralph Nader for presidential candidate and Winona LaDuke as vice president in 2000. Visitors sometimes misspell as vise-president, vice-president, or vise president.

    32. Political Campaigns Search (Searchbutton.com - Election Search 2000)
        Provides information on political campaigns and issues of candidates. 5-00

    33. Reform Party
        Provides information about the party positions and candidates. 8-00

    34. Republican National Committee
        Provides information about the party positions and candidates. 8-00

    35. U.S. Code, Title 3, Section 5 (FindLaw)
        Provides one of the portions of the U.S. Code that Bush contends was violated by the Florida Supreme Court when the Florida Court gave additional time for hand recounts in the presidential election. 12-00

    36. U.S. Constitution, Article II (FindLaw)
        Provides one of the portions of the U.S. Constitution that Bush contends was violated by the Florida Supreme Court when the Florida Court gave additional time for hand recounts in the presidential election. 12-00

    37. Views of Teens - From Britain and Italy (McNeil-Lehrer Productions)
        Provides views of teens about the presidential election of 2000 in the United States and their own countries. Also describes elections in Britain and Italy. 11-00

    Projects
    1. Voter Deadlines by State (Vote Smart)
        Provides deadlines for voting, organized by state. 2-04

    Research
    1. Butterfly Ballot Proven Confusing (Nature - Adam)
        Provides results from an experiment to determine if a butterfly ballot causes voters to make a mistake in voting. The study uncovered an eight percent error rate resulting directly from the layout of the ballot. 11-00

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