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  1. 05-25-03 Few Kurds Want to be Part of Iraq (International Herald Tribune)
      Describes the feelings of the majority of Kurds and provides a short history of the Kurds in Iraq. 5-03

  2. 05-26-03 Pentagon Denies Deception on Jessica Lynch Story (BBC News)
      "An investigation by the BBC's Correspondent programme said the story of the rescue was 'one of the most stunning pieces of news management ever conceived.' "

      "Pentagon spokesman Bryan Whitman said any claims that the facts of Private Lynch's rescue were misrepresented by the US military were 'void of all facts and absolutely ridiculous'." 5-03

  3. 06-01-03 Senate to Investigate Information on Weapons (
      "Two Senate committees want to investigate whether U.S. intelligence accurately pointed to banned weapons in Iraq as claimed by the Bush administration in going to war, senators said Sunday."

      " 'If we don't find these weapons of mass destruction, it will represent a serious intelligence failure or the manipulation of that intelligence to keep the American people in the dark,' Graham said."

      "The Bush administration's main argument for the Iraq invasion was that deposed President Saddam Hussein held chemical and biological weapons and possibly was developing nuclear weapons." 6-03

  4. 06-01-03 Vice President's Former Company Gains Huge Contracts Without Competition (CBS News)
      "The Army has given a Halliburton Co. subsidiary more than $425 million in troop support work related to the Iraqi war in the past 14 months, using an exclusive contract that Vice President Dick Cheney's former company won in 2001."

      "Rep. Henry Waxman, D-Calif., who disclosed the troop support work orders Thursday, said the structure of exclusive contract means that 'the amount that Halliburton could receive in the future is virtually limitless.' " 6-03

  5. 06-22-03 Iraqis Claim U.S. Administrators Ignorant of Conditions (Independent - Cockburn)
      "Asked about Baghdad's lack of electricity at an air-conditioned press conference, Paul Bremer, the American head of the occupation authority, looking cool in a dark suit and quiet purple tie, simply asserted that, with a few exceptions, Baghdad was now receiving 20 hours of electricity a day. 'It simply isn't true,' said one Iraqi, shaking his head in disbelief after listening to Mr Bremer. 'Everybody in Baghdad knows it.' "

      "Only 15 minutes' walk from Mr Bremer's office Shamsedin Mansour, a poor shopkeeper in an alleyway off al-Rashid street, gave a bleak picture of how he and his neighbours live. 'We have had no electricity for six days,' he said. 'Many of our people are suffering from heart problems because of the heat. We live with as many as 42 people in a house and do not have the money to buy even a small generator. Without light at night it is easy for gangs of thieves with guns to take over the streets, and the shooting keeps us awake. If we try to protect ourselves with arms, the Americans arrest us.' " 6-03

  6. 06-22-03 Saving Jessica Lynch Story (CNN News - Kristof)
      "It looks as if the first accounts of the rescue were embellished, like the imminent threat from W.M.D., and like wartime pronouncements about an uprising in Basra and imminent defections of generals. There's a pattern: we were misled." 6-03

  7. 06-26-03 Syria Protests U.S. Strike (BBC News)
      "Syria says it has protested to the US Government over an American military strike thought to have been aimed at Saddam Hussein." 6-03

  8. 06-30-03 U.S. Grapples With Iraqi Refugees (Washington Times - Pisik)
      "Handling the return of millions of Iraqis who fled to other countries or were driven from their homes during Saddam Hussein's rule stands as one of the most daunting long-term challenges for the U.S. administrators running Iraq." 6-03

  9. 07-10-03 Senior British Official States Weapons Unlikely to be Found (BBC News)
      "Senior UK Whitehall sources no longer believe weapons of mass destruction will be found in Iraq, the BBC has learned."

      "The latest twist in the weapons row came as the US Defence Secretary Donald Rumsfeld admitted the US had had no fresh intelligence about weapons of mass destruction in Iraq before going to war." 7-03

  10. 07-13-03 Diplomat: U.S. Knew Uranium Report Was False (CBS News)
      "During his State of the Union address in January [2003], two months before the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq, President Bush accused Iraq of trying to buy 'significant quantities of uranium' from an unnamed African country." The African nation of Niger has the type of uranium that can be used to build nuclear weapons. A former U.S. diplomat, Joseph Wilson, claims that the U.S. knew the allegation was false long before the State of the Union adddress.

      "In an op-ed piece published in Sunday's New York Times, [former diplomat Joseph] Wilson wrote that the CIA sent him to Niger in February 2002 at the request of Vice President Dick Cheney's office." Wilson said that his mission was to determine if Iraq had tried to buy uranium from the African country. The diplomat said he found that Iraq had not attempted to buy uranium from the African country. "An administration official told CNN that Cheney and his aides were "unaware of the mission, and unaware of the results or conclusion of his [Wilson's] mission." 7-03

  11. 07-13-03 Iraq Council Meets (CBS News)
      "A 25-member governing council of prominent Iraqis from diverse political and religious backgrounds was named at an inaugural meeting Sunday, a crucial first step on the nation's path to democracy." 7-03

  12. 07-14-03 Iraqi Council Begins Work (BBC News)
      "The council has the power to nominate and dismiss ministers, and to direct policy - and is also expected to help draw up a new constitution paving the way for free elections."

      "But critics have complained that it is drawn largely from groups which were previously based outside Iraq, and that selecting rather than electing members will compromise the council's legitimacy." 7-03

  13. 07-14-03 Iraqi Response to New Council (BBC News - Dymond)
      Iraqis respond to a new council, the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA), selected by coalition forces to advise the U.S. on the governance of Iraq. "After so much talk of liberation, a council handpicked by the coalition forces was not what was expected."

      "Talk of a wide range of representation is fine. But the whole body, as far as many are concerned, is tainted by the way it has been selected by the coalition rather than elected by the people." 7-03

  14. 07-15-03 Blair Proposes Intervening in States Using Brutality (Independent)
      Prime Minister of the UK, Tony Blair, proposed new rules of engagement for the U.N. but his proposal was rejected. He said, "The real issue is how do we, in circumstances where there is brutal repression of people by a particular regime, how do we offer them support and protection and what are the rules, because people want to know that they are operating in a system with rules." 7-03

  15. 07-15-03 New Government of Iraq (CBS News)
      " 'The [Iraqi CPA] council will have major authority. It will be the real ruler of Iraq,' Hariri said. 'Bremer's role as a civil administrator of Iraq will be consulting with the governing council in some of the matters, especially the security matters since they (the Americans) are the main military force in Iraq.' "

      "The governing council has the power to name ministers and approve the 2004 budget. The 25-member body is comprised of prominent Iraqis from all walks of political and religious life and will have some political muscle even though the Americans have made clear Bremer has ultimate control." 7-03

  16. 07-16-03 NATO Wary of Sending Troops to Iraq (Financial Times)
      "Several Nato countries say they would be unwilling to send troops to Iraq, as senior Pentagon officials now estimate it would take a year to put together one division of 12,000 Iraqi troops in the new national army." 7-03

  17. 07-16-03 Vice President Under Pressure to Resign (Independent - Buncombe and Woolf)
      "Dick Cheney, the US Vice-President and the administration's most outspoken hawk over Iraq, faced demands for his resignation last night as he was accused of using false evidence to build the case for war."

      "He was accused of using his office to insist that a false claim about Iraq's efforts to buy uranium from Africa to restart its nuclear programme be included in George Bush's State of the Union address - overriding the concerns of the CIA director, George Tenet."

      "Mr Cheney was also accused of knowingly misleading Congress when the administration sought its authorisation for the use of force to oust Saddam Hussein."

      "The allegations against Mr Cheney have come most vocally from a group of senior former intelligence officials who believe that information from the intelligence community was selectively used to support a war fought for political reasons. In an open letter to President George Bush, the group have asked that he demand Mr Cheney's resignation." 7-03

  18. 07-17-03 Attention Diverted From Humanitarian Crises (CBS News)
      "Too many humanitarian crises are forgotten as world attention focuses on headline-grabbing emergencies in Iraq, Afghanistan and other hotspots, the Red Cross said Thursday." 7-03

  19. 07-22-03 Saddam's Sons Are Dead (CNN News)
      "Saddam Hussein's sons Qusay and Uday were killed Tuesday in a firefight with U.S. troops in Mosul, the commander of U.S. ground forces in Iraq said." 7-03

  20. 07-25-03 Next Steps In Iraq ( - Karon)
      "An independent study of U.S. efforts in Iraq commissioned by Bremer and Defense Secretary Don Rumsfeld (downloadable from the Center for Strategic and International Studies) had already sounded the alarm last week, warning that the coalition's window of opportunity to remake Iraq on stable, friendly terms is closing fast." (Also available through a link below (under Papers) on Post-Conflict Reconstruction in Iraq.)

      "That conclusion squares with a growing mood on both sides of the aisle on Capitol Hill for a new U.S. effort to persuade reluctant allies to share the military and financial load in Iraq." 7-03

  21. 07-30-03 New President Named for Iraq (USA Today)
      "After weeks of struggling to choose a leader, Iraq's U.S.-picked interim government named its first president Wednesday — a Shiite Muslim from a party banned by Saddam Hussein."

      "Ibrahim al-Jaafari, a Shiite Muslim and chief spokesman for the Islamic Dawa Party, which was banned during Saddam's rule, was picked to be the first of nine men who will serve one-month stints leading postwar Iraq. He will hold the presidency in August." 7-03

  22. 08-08-03 Al Gore Challenges Reasons for War in Iraq (
      "I'm convinced that one of the reasons that we didn't have a better public debate before the Iraq War started is because so many of the impressions that the majority of the country had back then turn out to have been completely wrong. Leaving aside for the moment the question of how these false impressions got into the public's mind, it might be healthy to take a hard look at the ones we now know were wrong and clear the air so that we can better see exactly where we are now and what changes might need to be made." 8-03

  23. 08-27-03 U.N. Diplomat Sergio Vieira de Mello Killed in Iraq (
      "The 55-year-old Brazilian, who had served over 30 years with the United Nations and was seen as a future secretary-general, was always accessible and approachable, said David Lambo, a friend and former colleague at the U.N. refugee agency."

      "Praising his 'boundless energy' and perseverance, he said: 'He always thought there was a way through the problem. His passing has left a big vacuum in the United Nations.' ''

      " 'He was truly one of the most charismatic people I've ever known,' he said of the tough negotiator and skilled diplomat." 8-03

  24. 08-27-03 U.S. Miscalculated Iraq's Security Needs (
      "Top Bush administration officials grudgingly acknowledge that their post-Saddam Hussein plan for rebuilding Iraq has been substantially flawed on the security front."

      Some defense officials said privately in interviews that the plan in place for security after Baghdad's fall has been an utter failure. They said it failed to predict any significant resistance from Saddam loyalists, much less the deadly combination of Ba'athist holdouts and foreign terrorists preying daily on American troops." 8-03

  25. 09-01-03 Iraqis Mourn Slain Shi'ite Leader (
      "Hundreds of thousands of chest-beating Shi'ite mourners gathered yesterday to honor Ayatollah Muhammad Baqir al-Hakim, a leading cleric whose death in a bomb attack Friday has opened the door to a struggle for control of Iraq's Shi'ite majority."

      "Observers of Iraq's clerical leadership describe an ongoing power struggle pitting middle-class followers of Ayatollah Sistani and the Hakim family against the poorer, younger and more militant adherents of a young cleric named Moqtada al-Sadr."

      "When Ayatollah al-Hakim arrived from exile in Tehran, the pulpit at the Imam Ali mosque was vacant. With his death, at issue now is which Iraqi cleric will lead Friday prayers at the mosque, second in importance within the Shi'ite sect only to Muslim holy sites in Mecca and Medina." 9-03

  26. 09-03-03 Why the U.S. Needs U.N. Support in Iraq (BBC - Reynolds)
      "Despite a recent claim by chief US administrator Paul Bremer that Iraq is 'not a country in chaos and Baghdad is not a city in chaos,' events suggest otherwise. Mr Bush does not want to get bogged down there. "

      "Paul Bremer, in a Washington Post interview, blew the ship out of the water by revealing that the costs of reconstruction will be huge and cannot be covered by Iraqi oil exports." 9-03

  27. 09-06-03 The Cost of Gaining U.N. Support in Iraq (
      "...The Bush administration is reportedly preparing to ask Congress for a further $60-70 billion to fund ongoing operations in Iraq, and the cost of the first year of war and occupation looks set to run upward of $100 billion — and that's before the serious investment required for reconstruction even begins."

      "...the French and Germans have made no secret of the fact that they believe events in Iraq have vindicated rather than undermined their earlier opposition to the war — no weapons of mass destruction have been found and the terror threat appears to have increased rather than decreased as a result of the war. Even the Joint Chiefs of Staff has reportedly slammed the Pentagon's postwar planning as woefully inadequate."

      "Not only has the U.S. lost more troops in the postwar period than during the invasion itself; the fact that the number of American soldiers wounded in action currently averages 10 a day speaks to the scale of the resistance they're encountering." "While they'd agree with the principle of transferring power to the Iraqis, the 'Old Europeans' are going to demand that the UN, rather than the Bush administration, be given authority over the political process in the interim. And that may be more than the administration is willing to concede at this point." 9-03

  28. 09-06-03 U.S. and Britain to Back Down on Weapons of Mass Destruction (Independent - McSmith, Whitaker, and Lean)
      "Britain and the US have combined to come up with entirely new explanations of why they went to war in Iraq as inspectors on the ground prepare to report that there are no weapons of mass destruction there." 9-03

  29. 09-07-03 President Bush Requests an Additional $87 Billion (CBS News)
      "The White House on Monday said President Bush's request for $87 billion for operations in Iraq and Afghanistan was the price of keeping America secure, but critics said it was the cost of a 'reckless' foreign policy."

      "Republicans and Democrats alike have urged Mr. Bush to change course and seek more troops and money from other countries. But Mr. Bush said the current number of U.S. troops in Iraq — 130,000 — is sufficient but that more foreign troops are needed."

      "Some countries have asked for an explicit U.N. peacekeeping authorization, and Mr. Bush said Secretary of State Colin Powell would seek a Security Council resolution to authorize deployment of new forces." 9-03

  30. 09-13-03 U.S. Losing Iraq's Youth -- and Opportunity for Peace (The Atlanta Journal-Constitution - Allam)
      "With more than half of Iraq's 24 million residents younger than 25, cultivating youth support is key for the U.S. administration's long-term goals to shape the country into a model for Middle East democracy."

      Yet many young, middle-class Iraqis -- future leaders of the country -- say they are losing admiration for the America they glimpse through action movies, raunchy music videos and the soldiers their age who patrol the streets. For many, thinking of themselves as Arab and Iraqi has taken on new importance since the American soldiers arrived."

      " 'Before the war, I didn't care about politics,' said Monica Mohsin, 18, whose wealthy Christian family initially welcomed Saddam's ouster. 'I could go to clubs and parties. Now, my life is within four walls because my parents are too scared to let me go out. I swear, I never rejected Americans until they came to Iraq and opened a wide door for thieves and terrorists.' " 9-03

  31. 09-17-03 Blix: Iraqi's Bluffed on Weapons to Prevent Attack (CBS News)
      "Former U.N. chief weapons inspector Hans Blix believes that Iraq destroyed most of its weapons of mass destruction 10 years ago, but kept up the appearance that it had them to deter a military attack."

      "In an interview with an Australian radio station broadcast Wednesday, Blix said it was unlikely that the U.S and British teams now searching for weapons in Iraq would find more than some "documents of interest."

      "Former weapons inspectors now say, five months after the U.S. invasion, that what the U.S. alleged were 'unaccountable' stockpiles may have been no more than paperwork glitches left behind when Iraq destroyed banned chemical and biological weapons years ago." 9-03

  32. 09-17-03 Bush Popularity at a Low on Iraq (CBS News)
      "President Bush's approval rating on handling Iraq has fallen to its lowest level ever, and his overall approval rating is the lowest it has been since the 2001 terrorist attacks, according to a CBS News poll."

      The poll also finds that a declining number of Americans think the U.S. is in control of the situation in Iraq, and only 22% think the Bush administration has a clear plan for rebuilding the former dictatorship." 9-03

  33. 09-17-03 Bush Rejects Saddam 9-11 Link (BBC News)
      "US President George Bush has said there is no evidence that Saddam Hussein was involved in the 11 September attacks."

      "The comments - among his most explicit so far on the issue - come after a recent opinion poll found that nearly 70% of Americans believed the Iraqi leader was personally involved in the attacks."

      "At a time when the credibility of government intelligence and information is under the spotlight, President Bush probably had little choice but to scotch the confusion, says the BBC's Ian Pannell in Washington." 9-03

  34. 09-18-03 Blix: U.S. and Britain on a "Witch Hunt" (CBS News)
      "The U.N.'s former chief weapons inspector has attacked the 'spin and hype' he says the United States and Britain used when warning about Saddam Hussein's weapons of mass destruction."

      "In the run-up to the Iraq war, Washington argued that Iraq's weapons of mass destruction (WMD) posed an imminent threat and that Saddam's government had close links to al Qaeda -- the terrorist network run by Osama bin Laden."

      "Comparing the two countries [U.S. and Britain] to medieval witch-hunters, Blix said the British and U.S. governments convinced themselves Iraq posed a threat based on evidence that was later discredited -- including forged documents about alleged attempts to buy uranium for nuclear weapons." 9-03

  35. 09-28-03 Clark Attacks Bush's Iraq Policies (CNN)
      "Democratic presidential candidate Gen. Wesley Clark has attacked President Bush's economic plan as a failure, and said the war in Iraq was "unnecessary" and lacks a way to succeed or end." 9-03

  36. 09-28-03 How Much Is $87 Billion for Iraq? (PBS NOW - Brancacchio)
      The Bush administration has asked Congress for an additional $87 billion dollars for Iraq and Afghanistan this year. "Even by federal government standards the supplemental budget request is a lot of money, eighty-seven billion dollars. The word supplemental means just that…money on top of the 79 billion dollars already earmarked for Iraq and Afghanistan. Typically, federal budget figures are priced over ten years. Not this one. The eight-seven billion extra is for this year and odds are the administration will have to ask for more in 2004."

      "The sheer size of the supplemental request for Iraq is prompting many of us to take a moment to reflect on what each of us might have done with a chunk of change like that. You know, if history had been different. Had the sanctions worked, had the inspectors stayed, had the U.S. built a coalition that would have shared the costs of occupation as well the invasion."

      "It could be used to fix up America's infrastructure. Right now the city of Atlanta is fighting to get federal money for a big overhaul of its sewers. The President's request would spend nearly 10 times more for sewers and drinking water projects in Iraq than in the U.S. That's calculated per capita of population, but you get the point."

      "...But unlike a lottery, which is supposed to have the money on hand to pay its winners, there is no 87 billion dollars lying around in the U.S. treasury ripe for the spending."

      "So we'll borrow and those who lend will charge us interest which will rack up impressively over the decades it will take to pay it back. Think of it like a house. An $87 billion house with a mortgage. Payments just half-a-billion dollars a month, every month for the next 30 years." 9-03

  37. 10-01-03 Debate on Bush Request for $87 Billion (Bloomberg News)
      "The U.S. Senate rejected a Democratic effort to split President George W. Bush's request for money to rebuild Iraq from funding for military operations, a vote that may ease the way for passage of the administration's proposal. " 9-03

  38. 10-01-03 Envoys: U.S. Blocks U.N. Role in Rebuilding Iraq (Bloomberg News)
      "The U.S. is blocking plans to create a board that gives the United Nations and international lenders a role in deciding how to spend reconstruction funds in Iraq, dimming chances for donations to the recovery, diplomats said." 9-03

  39. 10-09-03 House Panel Approves $87 Billion for Iraq (Bloomberg)
      "The House Appropriations Committee approved spending $86.9 billion for U.S. operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, heeding President George W. Bush's pleas to provide the money without demanding repayment from Iraq." 10-03

  40. 10-20-03 U.S. Study Predicted Problems in Iraq (International Herald Tribune)
      "A yearlong State Department study predicted many of the problems that have plagued the American-led occupation of Iraq, according to internal State Department documents and interviews with officials of the Bush administration and members of Congress."

      " 'Here was the problem: State has good ideas and a feel for the political landscape, but they're bad at implementing anything. Defense, on the other hand, is excellent at logistical stuff, but has blinders when it comes to policy. We needed to blend these two together.' " 10-03

  41. 10-22-03 Probe: U.N. Failed to Protect Workers (
      "The United Nations didn't take proper security precautions in Iraq before the Aug. 19 suicide bombing that killed 22 people at its Baghdad headquarters, and Secretary- General Kofi Annan hasn't heeded his staff's call for a subsequent evacuation, according to an independent probe." 10-03

  42. 10-24-03 Billions Pledged for Iraq (BBC News)
      "In the end though, despite the gloomy expectations, governments and international agencies have pledged billions of dollars in aid and loans to help get Iraq back on its feet."

      "But the final total has still come in considerably below the amount originally hoped-for." 10-03

  43. 10-25-03 Wolfowitz Complains About Military Budget (Washington Times)
      "Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul D. Wolfowitz accused the House of Representatives yesterday of damaging Iraqi security by cutting in half the Senate-approved $200 million allocation for building Iraqi and Afghan army units. He also complained of a continuing bureaucratic 'logjam' in both the House and the Senate, which he said was stopping any funding being funneled to the Department of Defense, unless it was specifically designated for the two countries' regular armies."

      "Lt. Col. George Krivo, the U.S. command spokesman, said attacks on coalition forces have averaged about 26 a day over the past two weeks. About three-quarters of the attacks have occurred in an arc stretching from the west through Baghdad to the region north of the capital."10-03

  44. 10-26-03 Hotel Attack Divides Iraqis (BBC News - Asser)
      "News of the rocket attack against the Rashid Hotel spread rapidly around the streets of Baghdad, although attitudes are divided between people who support such operations and those who do not." 10-03

  45. 10-27-03 Major Attack on Baghdad (
      "Suicide bombers killed at least 34 people and injured 224 today in five coordinated attacks on the Red Cross and police stations in the Iraqi capital, Baghdad, U.S. and Iraqi officials said." 10-03

  46. 10-30-03 U.N. and Red Cross Pull Out of Iraq (Independent Online)
      "The United States on Thursday glumly accepted the withdrawal of foreign United Nations and Red Cross workers from Iraq, conceding it could not argue with the rationale behind the decisions."

      "The withdrawals have cast further doubt on US claims that the security situation is improving in Iraq, which is going through some of its deadliest days since the United States invaded in March to bring down Saddam Hussein." 10-03

  47. 11-03-03 Congress Approves $87.5 Billion (
      "The U.S. Senate approved an $87.5 billion measure that funds operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, sending the largest mid-year spending bill in history to President George W. Bush for his signature." 10-03

  48. 11-05-03 Big Contracts in Iraq Went to Big Donors (CBS News)
      "Companies awarded $8 billion in contracts to rebuild Iraq and Afghanistan have been major campaign donors to President Bush, and their executives have had important political and military connections, according to a study released Thursday." 11-03

  49. 11-05-03 Editorial: I Wish Bush Would Ask Me to Write Him a Speech (CBS News - Rooney)
      Provides an editorial by Andy Rooney, commentator for CBS News. "I wish President Bush would ask me to write a speech for him now." Rooney uses a fictional speech to summarize his view of mistakes made by President Bush in communicating to the American people and, on behalf of President Bush, expresses regret for those mistakes. 11-03

  50. 11-05-03 Where the Wounded Go (CBS News)
      "The U.S. effort In Iraq is costing lives, but there's another price being paid, too – in the increasingly high numbers of those being severely injured and disabled." 11-03

  51. 11-13-03 Poll: War With Iraq Based on Faulty Assumptions (USA Today)
      "More than half of Americans say President Bush decided to go to war on Iraq based on faulty assumptions, says a poll released Thursday." 11-03

  52. 11-15-03 U.S. to Hand Over Power in Iraq in June (BBC News - Reynolds)
      "The sudden decision by the United States to hand over power by the end of June next year is a recognition that its present policy has failed - but the new policy, plan B, is also something of a gamble."

      "The new interim government is to be selected by the end of June after countrywide consultations."

      "This suits the Kurds and the Sunnis who form minorities. They feel that their voice is better heard through such a mechanism. "

      "Then there will be elections to a constituency assembly. That has always been the demand of the majority Shias who want to bring their voting power to bear in any way they can." 11-03

  53. 11-15-03 U.S. to Hand Over Power in Iraq in June (USA Today)
      "American administrators will hand over sovereignty to a new transitional government by June, the Iraqi Governing Council said Saturday, announcing an accelerated U.S. plan for ending the occupation of Iraq." 11-03

  54. 11-28-03 Bush Makes Secret Visit to Iraq (
      "U.S. President George W. Bush's secret Thanksgiving visit to troops in Iraq was the first such unscheduled journey since President Lyndon Johnson went to Vietnam in 1967, at the height of the war in Southeast Asia." 11-03

  55. 12-15-03 Saddam Hussein Captured (USA Today)
      "The end for Saddam Hussein came in the village of Ad Dawr, 10 miles south of his hometown of Tikrit and just a few miles from his birthplace of Uja. But it began with a new approach by U.S. intelligence that launched interrogations of low-level aides and family members — cousins, drivers, bodyguards, secretaries and other insiders who might know his whereabouts." 12-03

  56. 12-15-03 Saddam Hussein Profile (USA Today)
      "For Saddam Hussein, the end came close to his beginning. He was captured near Tikrit in Ad Dawr, a few miles from the farming village of Owja, where he was born 66 years ago." 12-03

  57. 12-16-03 U.S. Wins Agreement from France and Germany (Bloomberg)
      "Former U.S. Secretary of State James A. Baker III said he has won agreements from France and Germany on the need to restructure Iraq's $125 billion in debt." 12-03

  58. 12-22-03 Arab States Agree to Anti-Terrorism Pact and Transfer of Autonomy to Iraq (China View)
      "Leaders of the Gulf Arab states ended their annual summit here Monday with agreeing on the signing of a joint anti-terrorism accord and voicing support for a US-backed sovereignty transfer plan for the war-torn Iraq." 12-03

  59. 12-22-03 Russians Make Deal With Iraqis (
      "The head of the Iraqi Governing Council said after Kremlin talks that Moscow was ready to forgive at least some of Iraqi debts and in return Russian companies could work in Iraq." 12-03

  60. Editorial - Destabilization or Reconstruction? (BBC News - Reynolds)
      "On the one side is the Iraqi resistance. Its policy is to cause chaos in the hope that out of the wreckage, the occupation will end and perhaps even that Saddam Hussein himself will be propelled back to power."

      "On the other are the Coalition or occupation authorities and their Iraqi allies. They hope to transfer power by the end of next year and in the meantime are pouring in money to rebuild the basic infrastructure."

      Reynolds quotes US diplomat James Dobbins to summarize the situation: " 'Nation-building is not principally about economic reconstruction: rather it is about political transformation. The spread of democracy in Latin America, Asia and parts of Africa suggests that this form of government is not unique to Western culture or to advanced industrial economies: Democracy can, indeed, take root in circumstances where neither exists.' "

      "What principally distinguishes Germany, Japan, Bosnia and Kosovo from Somalia, Haiti and Afghanistan are not their levels of Western culture, economic development or cultural homogeneity," he says.

      "Rather it is the level of effort the United States and the international community put into their democratic transformations."10-03

  61. Editorial - When Good Is Bad and Bad Is Good (CBS News - Meyer)
      Provides a satirical look at President Bush's comment that increases in terrorist attacks show that America's efforts in Iraq are making progress. 10-03

  62. U.S. and Coalition Casualties in Iraq (
      "There have been 392 confirmed coalition deaths in the war as of October 22, 2003. The casualty list below reflects the names of the U.S. and British soldiers, Marines, airmen and sailors whose families have been notified. This list is updated regularly." 10-03

  1. 11-06-03 Troop Rotations to Begin (USA Today)
      "About 85,000 U.S. troops have been alerted they will soon be sent to Iraq to relieve forces who have been there for up to a year, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld said Thursday."

      "In addition, nearly 47,000 National Guard and Reserve forces are in the process of being notified that they will be activated to serve in Iraq or Afghanistan, Rumsfeld said at a Pentagon news conference. Even more Army soldiers could be alerted soon to add to those deployments, Rumsfeld said."

      "The Pentagon's plan for rotating U.S. troops in Iraq next year includes a return of the Marine Corps and a net reduction in the total American force." 11-03

  2. Checklist for Success in Iraq (CBS News - Mitchell)
      "Since there was no formal surrender, those who opposed our presence in Iraq continued the fight and, indeed, have been killing US soldiers almost daily. This remains intolerable. It should not be happening and could be stopped if U.S. officials at the highest levels looked for innovative ways to bring peace and stability to the country. Such change can not occur if we continue to use our most precious commodity—people—to man stationary outposts, guard important buildings and patrol in areas where the likelihood of attack is far too high. It can not occur if we don’t find better ways to work with the people of Iraq." 5-02

  3. Estimates of War Costs Rise (BBC - Schifferes)
      "Pentagon planners are now expected to ask Congress for a supplemental appropriation of $95bn to pay for the war if hostilities break out, up from previous estimates of around $60bn."

      " 'The government is going to have to borrow the money to finance this war,' said Senator Robert Byrd, 'overwhelming a federal budget which is already sliding into deep deficit and warping the US economy'. "

      "The increased costs of the war reflect uncertainty about the duration of the conflict, as well as additional costs for reconstruction and aid to key allies such as Turkey."

      "President Bush's ambitious goal of rebuilding democracy in Iraq implies that a large occupation force would be needed, staying at least several years."

      "And Washington plans to appoint a prominent US official to help run the country to ensure that 'one brutal dictator is not replaced by another'."

      "Another uncertainty, however, is to what extent US allies will pay for part of that bill - or directly aid the reconstruction efforts." 2-03

  4. Evidence of No Nuclear Development After 1991 (CNN - McDonald)
      "Gwozdecky, who said the [International Atomic Energy Agency] agency has no other information about the development other than press reports, said, "The findings and comments of Obeidi appear to confirm that there has been no post-1991 nuclear weapons program in Iraq and are consistent with our reports to the [U.N.] Security Council." 6-03

  5. Fragile Treasures of the World at Risk in Iraq (International Herald Tribune - Melikian)
      "Within weeks, some of the most important monuments, works of art and written archives of the history of East and West could be at risk."

      "If war breaks out in Iraq, the dangers threatening a cultural heritage - which matters not only to the land where the monuments stand and the artistic treasures were excavated, but also to our world - will be manifold."

      "The harm caused by the Gulf War in 1991 was severe." 3-03

  6. Key Points of U.N. Inspection Report (BBC News)
      "Chief UN weapons inspectors Hans Blix and Mohamed ElBaradei have delivered their reports to the Security Council on Iraqi co-operation." 3-03

  7. Middle Class in Iraq Eliminated (BBC News - Ghattas)
      "Iraq's middle class has been almost completely wiped out while poverty is spreading and people with close ties to the regime are becoming richer."

      "With the US planning a military strike against Iraq, Iraqis feel the future now looks even more uncertain." 9-02

  8. No Nuclear Weapons Program Found in Iraq (CNN)
      "The U.N. agency searching for evidence of a nuclear weapons program in Iraq said Monday that so far it has not found evidence of one." 1-03

  9. Reporting the War - Embedding Reporters (National Review - Owens)
      "For my money the program of embedding reporters is going pretty well." 4-03

  10. Reporting the War - Lacks Perspective ( - Bauder)
      "Despite the preponderance of live reports from embedded journalists, Rosenstiel said some of the most effective reports were taped, after the reporter had a chance to reflect upon what was seen and write a script."

      "At a time the press is criticized for being interpretive, the study found that 94 percent of the embedded reports were primarily factual." 4-03

  11. Tariq Aziz (BBC News)
      "Deputy Prime Minister Tariq Aziz is one of Iraq's most familiar figures on the world stage." "Mr Aziz has played the role of diplomat at key moments in Iraq's recent history." 4-03

  12. U.S. and Britain Provided Fake Evidence of Nuclear Efforts by Iraq (United Press International)
      "Some evidence linking Iraq to a nuclear weapons program appears to have been fabricated, the Washington Post reported Saturday. The faked evidence was described as a series of letters between Iraqi agents and officials in Niger."

      "The correspondence was deemed 'not authentic' after careful scrutiny by U.N. and independent experts, Mohamed ElBaradei, director-general of the International Atomic Energy Agency, told the U.N. Security Council."

      "The documents had been given to the U.N. inspectors by Britain and reviewed extensively by U.S. intelligence. The forgers had made relatively crude errors that eventually gave them away -- including names and titles that did not match up with the individuals who held office at the time the letters were purportedly written, the Post report said."

      " 'We fell for it,' said one U.S. official who reviewed the documents." 3-03


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