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Mountains and Volcanoes

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2004

Lesson Plans
  1. Earthquakes and Volcanoes (University of California - Coe and Merrick)
      Provides a lesson to study earthquakes and volcanoes. 3-01

Materials
  1. Volcanoes Erupting (Christian Science Monitor)
      Provides pictures of erupting volcanoes.

Papers
  1. Catastrophe Changes Civilizations (PBS - Secrets of the Dead Series)
      Provides evidence that in 535 A.D. the climate of the world was changed due to a volcano eruption. In turn, David Keyes researches changes in civilizations that may have been due to the droughts and hunger that may have resulted from the eruption. 6-01

  2. Iceland's Volcano a Travel Hazard (Time.com)
      "Volcanic ash, which is made up of sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen fluoride, along with fine silica particles, may not block pilots' sight lines, but its chemicals can wreck sensitive aircraft engines. It can also clog an aircraft's ventilation holes, causing engines to stall."

      "When Eyjafjallajokull last erupted, in 1821, it remained active for an entire year. Worse, the current event could trigger the eruption of nearby Mount Katla, which is even more powerful. If Katla were to explode, North Atlantic airspace could be affected for months. It could even impact the climate: the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines threw so much ash into the atmosphere that it reduced the amount of sunlight reaching the planet, cooling the world by about 0.5°C over the next two years. And that's something everyone would notice, even on a clear day."

  3. Mountains of the World (Infoplease.com)
      Provides a list of the highest mountains of the world, including height and location. 6-02

  4. Mountains of the World (PeakWare.com)
      Provides a list of the highest mountains of the world, including height and location. 6-02

  5. Mountains of the World (Wenzel)
      Provides pictures and information on mountains that allow exploration by walking, including Kilimanjaro (Tanzania), Mount Ararat (Turkey), Mont Blanc (France), Ras Dashen (Ethiopia), Mount Kinabalu (Sabah), Mount Cameroon (Cameroon), Mount Fuji (Japan), Pico de Teide (Canary Islands, Spain), Mount Etna (Italy), Qornat es-Sawda (Lebanon), Musala (Bulgaria), Jabal Katrina (Egypt), Huayna Picchu (Peru), Pico (Azores, Portugal), Hekla (Iceland), Ben Nevis (Scotland), Snowdon (Wales), Scafell Pike (England), Bénara (Mayotte), and Christoffelberg (Curaçao). 7-01

  6. Mountains of the World - Alphabetical (PeakWare.com)
      Provides information on peaks of the world in alphabetic order. Warning - Has brightly flashing "Winner" banner at the tops of pages.6-02

  7. Mountains of the World - Search Engine (PeakWare.com)
      Provides information on peaks of the world by continent, continent and name, elevation, or continent and elevation. Warning - Has brightly flashing "Winner" banner at the tops of pages.6-02

  8. New Underwater Volcano Found (Bloomberg.com)
      "A previously unknown underwater volcano has been discovered off the coast of Antarctica, the National Science Foundation said Thursday." 5-04

  9. Plate Tectonics - Himalayan Mountains (USGS)
      Provides a history of the collision of the plate carrying India with Asia, forming the Himalayan Mountains.

  10. Starting the "Dark Ages" (Wikipedia.org)
      "In the years 535 and 536, several remarkable aberrations in world climate took place. The Byzantine historian Procopius recorded of 536, "during this year a most dread portent took place. For the sun gave forth its light without brightness… and it seemed exceedingly like the sun in eclipse, for the beams it shed were not clear." Tree ring analysis by dendrochronologist Mike Baillie, of the Queen's University of Belfast, shows abnormally little growth in Irish oak in 536 and another sharp drop in 542, after a partial recovery. Similar patterns are recorded in tree rings from Sweden and Finland, in California's Sierra Nevada and in rings from Chilean Alerce trees." 10-06

  11. Tambora Eruption (Wikipedia.org)
      "Mount Tambora is a volcano on the Indonesian island of Sumbawa. In 1815, the volcano of Tambora suffered the most violent eruption in modern times." 01-06

  12. Volcanic Sulfur Aerosols Affect Climate and Destroy Ozone (USGS.gov)
      "The primary role of volcanic sulfur aerosols in causing short-term changes in the world's climate following some eruptions, instead of volcanic ash, was hypothesized by scientists in the early 1980's."

      "The most significant impacts from large explosive eruptions come from the conversion of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to sulfuric acid (H2SO4), which condenses rapidly in the stratosphere to form fine sulfate aerosols. The aerosols increase the reflection of radiation from the Sun back into space and thus cool the Earth's lower atmosphere or troposphere; however, they also absorb heat radiated up from the Earth, thereby warming the stratosphere."

      "The sulfate aerosols also promote complex chemical reactions on their surfaces that alter chlorine and nitrogen chemical species in the stratosphere. This effect, together with increased stratospheric chlorine levels from chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) pollution, generates chlorine monoxide (ClO), which destroys ozone (O3)."

  13. Yellowstone Supervolcano (Wikipedia.org)
      "The Yellowstone Caldera is the volcanic caldera and supervolcano located in Yellowstone National Park in the United States, sometimes referred to as the Yellowstone Supervolcano. The caldera is located in the northwest corner of Wyoming, in which the vast majority of the park is contained. The major features of the caldera measure about 34 by 45 miles (55 by 72 km).[3]"

Worksheets
  1. Volcanoes Worksheets (AbcTeach)
      Provides dozens of worksheets to help children have a better understanding of volcanoes. 8-01

   
   


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