- -Making Fuel Pellets from Biochar for Power Stations (BiomassMagazine.com)
"One of the methods for condensing biomass is pelletizing. Corn stover, for example, can be made 10 times denser if it is first ground to a five-thirty-seconds-inch particle before pelletizing, according to Alan Doering, associate scientist of coproducts at the Agricultural Utilization Research Institute office in Waseca, Minn."
"Eighty wood pellet mills across North America produce 1.1 million tons of pellets annually and 23 fireplace manufacturers make pellet stoves and fireplace inserts for burning pellets, according to the Pellet Fuels Institute, a nonprofit in Arlington, Va., that serves the pellet industry. The institute says 800,000 homes in the U.S. use wood pellets for heat."
"Before pelletizing, the mixture [of biomass] must be conditioned using water of varying temperatures or steam. 'Corn stover has a lower glass-transitioning temperature than switchgrass,' Doering says. 'You can get a very durable corn stover pellet at 165 degrees Fahrenheit, whereas to get an equivalent pellet with switchgrass, you have to obtain temperatures greater than 200 degrees, oftentimes 210 or 220 degrees.' "
" 'The big demand, as we see it right now, is going to be the electrical utility plants, the coal-burning plants,' Doudlah says. 'We have been involved in some test burns [with] some power plants and they are trying to see what the emissions are going to be. So far they have come back quite promising.' "
"Pastr notes that the fluidized bed combustion technology used at power plants is inherently flexible and can burn fuels with a wide range of calorific values, ash and moisture content and they have successfully been used to cofire wood, biomass and waste materials, in addition to coal. 12-12
- Hay Waste to Pellets (EnviroEnergyNY.com)
Farmers, "we want a crop that is presently unusable or wasted. There is now a viable market for severely weather damaged hay crops and hay crops that are not high quality enough for traditional uses." 12-12
- Making Fuel Pellets from Biochar (PSU.edu)
"Wood pellets have increased tremendously in popularity as a heating fuel during recent years, with many homeowners and commercial facilities choosing pellet stoves or boilers over traditional wood-fired equipment due to their relative easeof use. As a result, the demand for fuel pellets has also grown quickly. However, wood is not the only suitable feedstock for manufacturing pellet fuel. A wide array of biomass materials can be used to manufacture pellets, most notably perennial grasses such as switchgrass or miscanthus. Not only that, but the necessary equipment for making pellets is available at a variety of sizes and scales, which allows for everything from the smallest scale (single homeowners manufacturing for their personal use only) to the largest commercial plants producing more than 500 million tons of pellets per year."
Provides a chart showing the steps necessary to convert biomass into fuel pellets. 12-12
- Biomass Fuel Leaders Join Forces (BiomassMagazine.com)
"In a strategic attempt to further grow their biomass market worldwide, Enviva LP and Biomass Energy LLC are partnering to operate and expand Biomass Energy’s pellet manufacturing facility in Bumpass, Va." Awesome Library does not endorse these products but provides them as examples. 12-12
- Grass Pellets (EnviroEnergyNY.com)
Provides grass pellets for burning or pyrolyzing. "Comparing costs per BTU is a constantly shifting challenge, as the prices of oil, propane and other fuels spiral ever upwards. One thing we know for sure is that 17 pounds of pellets will equal the BTU’s of one gallon of oil. With grass pellets about twelve cents a pound, that comes to $2.04 – less than half of the current per gallon price of delivered home heating oil or propane." 12-12
- Making Fuel Pellets from Biochar (FFS Pellet Mills)
"FFS Pellet Mills are the “one stop shop” for automatic biomass pellet mill equipment. The company designs and manufactures pellet making machines for a wide range of biomass materials. We also make our own hammer mills and blenders to mix different raw materials into a consistent stream of biomass product." Awesome Library does not endorse these products but provides them as examples. 12-12
- Making Fuel Pellets from Biochar (PelletPros.com)
"Pellet Pros is offering the average person a way to produce their own pellets with our smaller pellet mills at an affordable price. Pellet Pros offers a wide variety of equipment for making pellets." Awesome Library does not endorse these products but provides them as examples. 12-12