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Black Holes


Materials
  1. Black Holes - Falling Into (Hamilton)
      Provides animations to illustrate the effects of black holes. 3-01

Papers
  1. -First Medium Size Black Hole Discovered (Time.com)
      "For 30 years, astronomers have been looking for evidence of a theorized class of black hole that would be sort of a cosmic middle child, falling somewhere between the well-established smaller ones — which are "only" 30 times the mass of our sun — and the supermassive types that are the equivalent of millions of solar masses."

      "There's more than just a taste for cosmic tidiness behind the hunt. These so-called intermediate-mass black holes could provide an important link in the life cycle of all black holes, suggesting that the mini and jumbo models are not two completely different species but rather members of a single species at different stages of maturation. Now there is evidence that medium-size black holes might indeed exist — courtesy of an X-ray blast from a mysterious body 290 million light-years from Earth." 07-12

  2. -How a Black Hole Works (HowStuffWorks.com)
      "What are black holes? Do they really exist? How can we find them? In this article, we will examine black holes and answer all of these questions!" 07-12

  3. -New Data Suggest a Paradox at the Event Horizon (PBS.org)
      " In 2012, Polchinski and his colleagues found a problem with the event horizon. As particles enter the event horizon, they’re ripped apart. As these particles break down, their research showed, they release a burst of energy, creating a firewall around the center of the black hole. This has become known as “the firewall paradox.” This notion of the event horizon as a highly energetic region throws another wrench in Einstein’s theory, which said that nothing special should happen at the event horizon."

      "That’s where Hawking’s latest paper comes in, suggesting physicists need to rethink that event horizon. His latest proposal suggests that there is in fact no event horizon to burn up. Instead, the apparent horizon becomes the real boundary." 10-14

  4. -Scientists Get to See a Black Hole "Eat" for the First Time (PBS.org)
      Shep Doeleman, an astronomer with MIT’s Haystack Observatory and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, said: " 'We really don’t know precisely how black holes eat or the frequency of their meals,' he continued. 'This would give us the opportunity to not only to do in real time, but to do it in a place that resolves what happens.' " 03-14

  5. Black Hole Creates Its Own Galaxy (Wired.com)
      “Astronomers have spied a distant black hole in the act of creating the galaxy that will eventually become its home." 07-10

  6. Black Hole Drinks Trillions of Earth's Worth of Water (Time.com)
      "We don't think of the universe as a terribly wet place, but in fact there's water out in space pretty much everywhere you look." 07-11

  7. Black Hole Pulls a Star in Orbit of Galaxy (USA Today - Vergano)
      "Astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope have captured evidence of a black hole hurtling through our Milky Way galaxy with gravity so strong it's dragging a star with it." 11-02

  8. Black Holes (KidsAstronomy.com)
      Provides a diagram and description of a black hole, singularity, and event horizon. 11-00.

  9. Black Holes (Wikipedia.org)
      "A black hole is a concentration of mass with a gravitational field so strong that the escape velocity from nearby points exceeds the speed of light." 10-04

  10. Chandra X-ray Observatory (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics)
      Provides the latest news on the X-ray observatory for space, black holes, and pioneering explorations using very high resolution methods. 9-00

  11. Event Horizon (Wikipedia.org)
      "An event horizon is a boundary in spacetime for a given observer beyond which no information, including light, can reach the observer. The most famous example is a black hole, which for a distant and stationary observer (such as someone at Earth) is surrounded by an event horizon." 10-04

  12. First-Ever Close-Up of Matter Falling into a Supermassive Black Hole (Christian Science Monitor)
      "For the first time, astronomers are poised to get a close look at a supermassive black hole making a meal of in-falling gas." 12-11

  13. Galaxy Blasted by a Black Hole (MSNBC News)
      "A powerful jet of particles from a "supermassive" black hole has been seen blasting a nearby galaxy, according to findings from the US space agency." 12-07

  14. Interferometry (University of Colorado - Cash)
      Explains a method of "seeing" that uses X-rays and is up to a thousand times more powerful than other methods (that use visible light) for studying distant objects. A special focus of this science is to see "black holes." 9-00

  15. Largest Black Holes Yet Found (CNN News)
      "Black holes: They're the most destructive monsters in the universe. We already knew they can be powerfully massive. Now scientists say they've found the most massive ones yet, as reported in the journal Nature." 12-11

  16. Largest Black Holes Yet Found (Time.com)
      "The smaller one, located inside a galaxy known as NGC 3842, is as massive as 9.7 billion suns, and the other, in a galaxy called NGC 4889, is more than twice as large: if you put it on a very large balance, it would take at least 21 billion stars to even things out. Another way to think about things: even the smaller of the two is nearly 30% bigger than the previous record holder, announced last winter, and it would make for a great storyline if astronomers were surprised, amazed, flabbergasted, blown away by the awesome giganticness of these monsters."

      "Nowadays, everyone pretty much agrees that quasars are supermassive black holes at the cores of young galaxies. The holes themselves aren't visible, of course, but when they suck in surrounding matter, the stuff heats up to millions of degrees, sending bursts of energy shooting across the cosmos."

      "Back when the universe was young, there was plenty of gas floating around to feed these monsters. Nowadays, much of it the gas is gone, and so are the quasars — but the black holes that powered them should, as Loeb says, still be around (where would they go, after all?)." 12-11

  17. New Data Suggest Supernova May Have Created Nearest Black Hole (Weather.com)
      "New data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory suggest a highly distorted supernova remnant may contain the most recent black hole formed in the Milky Way galaxy. The remnant appears to be the product of a rare explosion in which matter is ejected at high speeds along the poles of a rotating star." 02-13

  18. New Twist on Black Hole Theory (RedOrbit.com)
      "Professor Sam Braunstein, of the University of York’s Department of Computer Science, and Dr Arun Pati, of the Institute of Physics, Sainik School, Bhubaneswar, India, have established that quantum information cannot be ‘hidden’ in conventional ways, or in Braunstein’s words, 'quantum information can run but it can’t hide.' "

      "This result gives a surprising new twist to one of the great mysteries about black holes."

      "Dr Pati said: 'Our result shows that either quantum mechanics or Hawking’s analysis must break down, but it does not choose between these two possibilities.' " 02-07

  19. Questions About Black Holes (ASK and Astronomer for Kids)
      Provides questions and answers for kids and adults. 01-06

  20. Scientist May Have Created a Black Hole (BBC News)
      "A fireball created in a US particle accelerator has the characteristics of a black hole, a physicist has said."

      "It was generated at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in New York, US, which smashes beams of gold nuclei together at near light speeds."

      "The Brown researcher thinks the particles are disappearing into the fireball's core and reappearing as thermal radiation, just as matter is thought to fall into a black hole and come out as 'Hawking' radiation." 3-05

  21. Scientists Create Virtual Telescope 1000 Times Finer Than Hubble (Science Daily)
      "An international team, led by astronomers at the MIT Haystack Observatory, has obtained the closest views ever of what is believed to be a super-massive black hole at the center of the Milky Way galaxy." 09-08

  22. Supermassive Black Hole (Wikipedia.org)
      "A supermassive black hole is a black hole with a mass in the range of millions or billions solar masses." 10-04

   
       


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