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  1. Did Humans Kill Off Neanderthals? (
      "It is one of the world's oldest cold cases. Sometime between 50,000 and 75,000 years ago, a Neanderthal male known to scientists as Shanidar 3 received a wound to his torso, limped back to his cave in what is now Iraq and died several weeks later. When his skeleton was pieced together in the late 1950s and early '60s, scientists were stumped by a rib wound that almost surely killed him, hypothesizing that it could have been caused by a hunting accident or even a fellow Neanderthal. New research suggests that Shanidar 3 may have had a more familiar killer: a human being." 07-09

  2. Heidelberg Man (
      "Homo heidelbergensis (nicknamed "Goliath") is an extinct species of the genus Homo and the direct ancestor of Homo neanderthalensis in Europe."

      Provides a chart of hominids, including humans, at the bottom of the page.

      Provides a chart of hominids, including humans, at the bottom of the page. 03-06

  3. Homo Neanderthalensis (
      "The Neanderthal (Homo neanderthalensis) or Neandertal was a species of the Homo genus that inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia from about 230,000 to 29,000 years ago, during the Middle Paleolithic period."

      Provides a chart of hominids, including humans, at the bottom of the page. 03-06

  4. Neanderthal DNA Genes Decoded (MSNBC News)
      "Humans and their close Neanderthal relatives began diverging from a common ancestor about 700,000 years ago, and the two groups split permanently some 300,000 years later, according to two of the most detailed analyses of Neanderthal DNA to date."

      "In popular imagination, Neanderthals are often portrayed as prehistoric brutes who became outsmarted by a more advanced species, humans, emerging from Africa. But excavations and anatomical studies have shown that Neanderthals used tools, wore jewelry, buried their dead, cared for their sick, and possibly sang or even spoke in much the same way that we do. Even more humbling, perhaps, their brains were slightly larger than ours." 11-06

  5. Neanderthal Flute (Fink)
      Provides a picture, essay, and news coverage of a flute made of a bone that is believed to be at least 43,000 years old, making it the world's oldest musical instrument.

  6. Neanderthals (
      "One of the species of early man during this period was Homo Neandertalensis, the Neandertal man, named after the valley (Neander Tal) in which the skeleton of an old man was discovered." 03-06

  7. Neanderthals Built Cave Circles 175,000 Years Ago (
      Scientists have found evidence of Neanderthal ability at symbolic thought, chemistry, medicine, cooking, and perhaps "some capacity for speech." 05-16

  8. Rhodesian Man (
      "Rhodesian Man (Homo rhodesiensis) is a hominin fossil that was described from a cranium found in an iron and zinc mine in Northern Rhodesia (now Kabwe, Zambia) in 1921 by Tom Zwiglaar, a Swiss miner. In addition to the cranium, an upper jaw from another individual, a sacrum, a tibia, and two femur fragments were also found."

      "The skull is described as having a broad face similar to Homo neanderthalensis (ie. large nose and thick protruding brow ridges), but with a cranium intermediate between advances Homo sapiens and Neanderthal."

      Provides a chart of hominids, including humans, at the bottom of the page. 03-06

  9. Survival of the Weakest: Why Neanderthals Went Extinct (
      "Because Neanderthals were not adept at tracking herds on the tundra, they had to retreat with the receding woodlands. They made their last stand where pockets of woodland survived, including in a cave in the Rock of Gibraltar. There, Finlayson and colleagues discovered in 2005, Neanderthals held on at least 2,000 years later than anywhere else before going extinct, victims of bad luck more than any evolutionary failings, let alone any inherent superiority of their successors." 07-09

  10. Y Chromosone and the Neanderthal (
      "We knew that some cross-breeding between us and Neanderthals happened more recently – around 100,000 to 60,000 years ago."

      "Neanderthal genes have been found in our genomes, on X chromosomes, and have been linked to traits such as skin colour, fertility and even depression and addiction. Now, an analysis of a Y chromosome from a 49,000-year-old male Neanderthal found in El Sidrón, Spain, suggests the chromosome has gone extinct seemingly without leaving any trace in modern humans." 05-16


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