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Homo Sapiens Sapiens

Papers
  1. -Our Evolution - Homo Sapiens Sapiens (O'Neil) star
      "All people today are classified as Homo sapiens sapiens--i.e., the sapiens variety of the species Homo sapiens. They first began to appear 130,000 years ago or somewhat earlier in association with technologies not unlike those of the early Neandertals. It is now clear that they did not come after the Neandertals but were their contemporaries." Provides a timeline, description, and different theoretical models about the development of current humans, Homo sapiens sapiens.

      Editor's Note: Homo sapiens sapiens, current humans, are the only known survivors of the genus Homo or the species sapiens. 06-03

  2. Editorial: Genetic Mutation in the Brain Changed Humans (StanfordAlumni.org)
      "Most anthropologists agree that modern behavior emerged around 45,000 years ago, dramatically changing how people thought and lived." 03-06

  3. Finding: Modern Humans Were Chinese (Time.com)
      "Taken together, the researchers write, the analyses of the teeth are 'the earliest and soundest evidence of definitely modern humans in southern China at least 80,000 years ago.' " 04-17

  4. Footprints of Early Modern Humans Found (NationalGeographic.com)
      "To paleoanthropologists, 'Eve' is a hypothetical female who lived somewhere in Africa between 100,000 and 300,000 years ago. She carried a particular type of mitochondrial DNA—genetic material that is passed on only through females. Scientists measuring the range of variation in mitochondrial DNA in different populations today have concluded that we all descend from one common female ancestor—'Eve.' "

      “ 'It’s highly unlikely, of course, that the actual 'Eve' made these prints,' Berger said, 'but they were made at the right time on the right continent to be hers.' ” 8-97

  5. Genes to Trace Humanity's Migration (National Geographic)
      "New DNA studies suggest that all humans descended from a single African ancestor who lived some 60,000 years ago. To uncover the paths that lead from him to every living human, the National Geographic Society today launched the Genographic Project at its Washington, D.C., headquarters." 4-05

  6. Mitochondiral Eve (Wikipedia.org)
      "Mitochondrial Eve is the name given by researchers to the woman who is the most recent common matrilineal ancestor of all living humans. We know about Eve because of mitochondria. Mitochondria are organelles that are only passed from mother to offspring. Each mitochondrion contains Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and the comparison of DNA sequences from mtDNA reveals a phylogeny. Based on the molecular clock technique of correlating elapsed time with observed genetic drift, Eve is believed to have lived in a population of humans about 150,000 years ago in Africa." 03-06

  7. New Group of Ancient Humans Discovered (BBC News)
      "Scientists say an entirely separate type of human identified from bones in Siberia co-existed and interbred with our own species."

      "The ancient humans have been dubbed Denisovans after the caves in Siberia where their remains were found." 12-10

  8. Our Evolution - Homo Sapiens Sapiens (Roper)
      Summarizes the known genetic history of current humans, as well as migration and climate patterns. Written at the college level. 06-03

  9. Poll: Fewer Than Four in Ten Believe in Evolution (U.S. News)
      "Charles Darwin would have been 200 tomorrow, an event that Gallup is marking with a new poll showing that 39 percent of Americans believe in the theory of evolution. A quarter say they don't believe in evolution, and 36 percent say they have no opinion."

      "The strongest predictor of respondents' views on evolution? Church attendance."

      "In fact, Gallup's analysis says religiosity outweighs educational level in shaping views on evolution, even though those with the most education are far more likely to support evolution than those with the least. Just 21 percent of respondents who had up to a high school level of education believe in evolution, compared with 74 percent of those with postgraduate degrees." 10-07

  10. Timeline of Human Evolution (Wikipedia.org)
      Provides a history going back to when life first appeared on earth. 03-06

  11. Y-Chromosomal Adam (Wikipedia.org)
      "In human genetics, Y-chromosomal Adam (Y-mrca) is the male counterpart to mitochondrial Eve: the most recent common ancestor from whom all male human Y chromosomes are descended. Unlike other genes, those of the Y chromosome are passed exclusively from father to sons, just as mitochondrial DNA is passed to all children only by their mothers."

      "The Y-chromosomal Adam for living humans probably lived between 60,000 and 90,000 years ago, judging from molecular clock and genetic marker studies. While their descendants certainly became close intimates, Y-chromosomal Adam and mitochondrial Eve are separated by thousands of generations. They are named after the 'Adam' and 'Eve' in Genesis as a metaphor only, and are not considered to be the first humans. There would have been many others alive at the same time." 03-06

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