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Concussions

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  1. Concussions
Materials
  1. CDC Provides Free Toolkits for School Coaches (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
      "Coaches, athletic directors and trainers play a key role in helping to prevent concussion and in managing it properly if it occurs." 03-09

Papers
  1. Concussions in Football Players (CNN News)
      "Scientists at the Boston University School of Medicine's Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy tested Shane's brain tissue and confirmed that before he died he was suffering with a brain disease -- chronic traumatic encephalopathy -- that seems to afflict football players."

      " 'There is evidence of CTE in his brain making him yet another former NFL player who had definite CTE,' said Chris Nowinski, co-director of the traumatic encephalopathy center. Nowinski said the center has found evidence of CTE in the brains of 13 of 14 former NFL players, including Dronett."

      "Usually found in much older dementia patients, CTE is an accumulation of an abnormal protein in the brain called tau, which is associated with repeated head traumas -- concussions or subconcussive hits -- that are not allowed to heal. CTE can also diminish brain tissue and is associated with memory loss, depression, impulsive behavior and rage." 03-09

  2. Dead Athletes' Brains Show Damage from Concussions (CNN News)
      "Until recently, the best medical definition for concussion was a jarring blow to the head that temporarily stunned the senses, occasionally leading to unconsciousness. It has been considered an invisible injury, impossible to test -- no MRI, no CT scan can detect it."

      "But today, using tissue from retired NFL athletes culled posthumously, the Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy (CSTE), at the Boston University School of Medicine, is shedding light on what concussions look like in the brain. The findings are stunning. Far from innocuous, invisible injuries, concussions confer tremendous brain damage. That damage has a name: chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)." 03-09

  3. NFL to Require Sidline Test After Head Blows (CNN News)
      "Under increasing pressure from players, medical professionals and even fans, on Friday the National Football League took a step towards clearing up its policy on treating head injuries. Starting this fall, every team will be required to use the same neurologic test to determine – on the field – whether an injured player may return to the game."

      " 'The NFL Sidelines Concussion Exam' is a battery of simple tests evaluating concentration, basic thinking skills and balance. It also includes a questionnaire that asks about concussion symptoms. It's designed to be given on the field, within a 6-to-8 minute window. 'The individual pieces have all been validated through research, but they’ve never been used together like this,' says Ellenbogen." 02-11

  4. Shocking N.F.L. Poster on Concussions in Football (New York Times)
      "The National Football League is producing a poster that bluntly alerts its players to the long-term effects of concussions, using words like 'depression' and 'early onset of dementia' that those close to the issue described as both staggering and overdue." 07-10

  5. Sports Concussions a Growing Concern (HealthLink)
      "Many other sports and recreational activities, including wrestling, hockey, soccer (from head collisions), snowboarding and in-line skating, can also result in concussions. Even whiplash can cause a concussion. Altogether, about 300,000 traumatic brain injuries occur each year in sports and recreation in the United States."

      "Several National Football League players (notably, quarterbacks Troy Aikman and Steve Young) retired after suffering several concussions during their careers. Multiple concussions suffered over a period of months or years increases the risk of permanent brain damage and post-concussion syndrome, in which neurological or cognitive problems become chronic. Even mild concussions occurring within hours, days or weeks of each other can result in 'second impact syndrome,' which can be fatal. As a result, coaches and trainers are showing an increased sensitivity to the effects of concussions on their players." 03-09

  6. Study: Kids Returning to Sports Too Soon After Concussion (Time.com)
      "Too many kids are returning to the playing field too soon after a concussion. How many? According to an alarming new study, from 2005 to 2008, 41% of concussed athletes in 100 high schools across the U.S. returned to play too soon, under guidelines set out by the American Academy of Neurology. The 11-year-old guidelines say, for example, that if an athlete's concussion symptoms, such as dizziness or nausea, last longer than 15 minutes, he should be benched until he's been symptom-free for a week. The most startling data point--uncovered by the same researchers who in 2007 brought to light the fact that girls have a higher incidence of concussion than boys--is that 16% of high school football players who lost consciousness during a concussion returned to the field the same day." 03-09

   
   


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