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  1. -11-16-11 "Mountain Tsunamis" Expected in Bhutan (Time.com)
      "The Kingdom of Bhutan, tucked between India and China in the foothills of the Himalaya mountain range, is paying the price for global industrialization. To the north of the country, a chain of Himalayan glaciers is rapidly retreating by between 20 m and 30 m per year. Experts blame climate change and predict that by 2035, the glaciers could be gone altogether."

      "Water flows from these melting glaciers until it breaks the natural ice dams that hold it in place. That, in turn, can result in devastating floods like the one that occurred in 1994, when a torrent of mud killed dozens of people in Bhutan and wiped out entire villages. Western scientists call this phenomenon a glacial-lake-outburst flood, or GLOF. With 24 of its 2,674 glacial lakes considered unstable, Bhutan is preparing in the coming years for even deadlier 'mountain tsunamis,' as the phenomenon is sometimes referred to." 11-11

  2. Disaster Preparation

  3. Tsunami Disaster - Where to Donate (CNN News)
      "International aid organizations are accepting donations to help victims of the powerful earthquake and resulting tsunamis that caused widespread destruction in parts of South Asia and East Africa." 12-04

  4. -12-31-04 Companies Donate for Relief (CNN News)
      "Corporations reached out to help the victims of Sunday's earthquake-triggered tsunamis in southern Asia." 12-04

  5. Donating for Relief (United with South East Asia)
      Summarizes the amount of donations by country and also provides opportunities to donate. Provides the number of deaths by country. 12-04

  6. Japan Makes Largest Tsunami Donation (Bloomberg.com)
      "Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi pledged $500 million to international tsunami relief and reconstruction work, becoming the biggest donor nation." 01-05

  7. Map of Location of Epicenter of Tsunami (Guardian Unlimited)
      Provides a map showing where the underwater earthquake occured that caused the giant tsunami of December 26, 2004. 01-05

  8. Pictures of Damage from Tsunami by Country (Guardian Unlimited)
      Provides pictures of the damage caused by the December 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean. 01-05

  9. Editorial: Pledged Amounts for Donations Rarely Accurate (Guardian Unlimited)
      "The United Nations yesterday warned that huge promises of aid from rich countries to the Asia tsunami crisis might not be fulfilled as some countries use dubious methods to appear more generous than they really are." 01-05

  10. Woman Running to Save Her Children Lives (Guardian Unlimited)
      "It has become one of the defining images of the tsunami disaster: a woman in a bikini running towards the giant wave trying to save her children who had been playing in the surf."

      "When the photograph appeared in newspapers across the world last week most people assumed the family had perished moments later." 01-05

  11. Persons of the Week: Tsunami Volunteers (ABC News)
      "After devastating tsunamis pounded South Asia, destroying property and killing hundreds of thousands of people, Charlie Higgins like so many others responded unselfishly to calls for help." 01-05

  12. -01-12-05 Tsunami Warning System Expected in a Year (BBC News)
      "A tsunami early warning system for the Indian Ocean could be up and running by the middle of next year, Unesco head Koichiro Matsuura has said." 01-05

  13. Members of Ancient Tribes Escaped (CBS News)
      "The last few dozen remaining members of an ancient indigenous tribe in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands said they raced up a mountain to escape a devastating tsunami and avoid extinction."

      "And contrary to speculation by some anthropologists, she said the Great Andamanese did not sense the impending arrival of the tsunamis."

      "Anthropologists believe five tribes of the southern Indian archipelago including the Jarawas, Shompens, Onges and Sentinelese date back 70,000 years. 1-05

  14. Sea Gypsies Rebuild (CBS News)
      "Thailand's Moken tribe a small community of fishermen whose elders ordered a hilltop evacuation just before the tsunami hit is rebuilding on a nearby beach. The Moken believe their old home is cursed because they mistakenly left behind a handicapped boy."

      "The boy was the only tribe member to die in the waves, which killed more than 157,000 across southern Asia and 5,300 in Thailand." 1-05

  15. Ancient Tribes May Have Known (CBS News)
      "Members of the ancient Jarawa tribe emerged from their forest habitat Thursday for the first time since the Dec. 26 tsunami and earthquakes that rocked the isolated Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and in a rare interaction with outsiders announced that all 250 of their fellow tribespeople had survived."

      "According to varying estimates, there are only 400 to 1,000 members alive today from the Jarawas, Great Andamanese, Onges, Sentinelese and Shompens. Some anthropological DNA studies indicate the generations may have spanned back 70,000 years. They originated in Africa and migrated to India through Indonesia, anthropologists say."

      "Government officials and anthropologists believe that ancient knowledge of the movement of wind, sea and birds may have saved the indigenous tribes from the tsunami." 1-05

  16. Tsunami Facts (Wikipedia.org)
      "The term [tsunami] was created by fishermen who returned to port to find the area surrounding the harbour devastated, although they had not been aware of any wave in the open water. A tsunami is not a sub-surface event in the deep ocean; it simply has a much smaller amplitude (wave heights) offshore, and a very long wavelength (often hundreds of kilometers long), which is why they generally pass unnoticed at sea, forming only a passing 'hump' in the ocean."

      Includes descriptions of some of the largest tsunamis of the past, such as the one caused by the Krakatoa explosion in 1883.

      "At some time between 1650 BC and 1600 BC (still debated), the volcanic Greek island Santorini erupted, causing a 100 m to 150 m high tsunami that devastated the north coast of Crete, 70 km (45 miles) away, and would certainly have eliminated every timber of the Minoan fleet along Crete's northern shore. Santorini is regarded as the most likely source for Plato's literary parable of Atlantis, and is believed by some scientists to have informed Great Flood accounts which were eventually recorded in Jewish, Christian, and Islamic texts."

      "The magnitude 9.0 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake triggered a series of lethal tsunamis on December 26, 2004 that killed roughly 165,000 people (more than 105,000 in Indonesia), making it the deadliest tsunami in recorded history." 01-05

  17. Donating for Relief (American Red Cross)
      Provides a form for credit card donations to the Red Cross. 1-05

  18. -01-19-05 Tsunami Death Toll Up to 225,000 (MSNBC News)
      "Indonesia's Health Ministry raised the country's death toll from the Dec. 26 tsunami to 166,320 on Wednesday, pushing the total number of people killed in the disaster above 225,000." 1-05

  19. Kobe, a Tsunami Reminder (BBC News)
      "The UN chose to hold its disaster reduction conference here [Kobe] to concentrate minds on the lessons learned from Kobe: that with all the technology and experience Japan has, it was still taken by surprise." 1-05

  20. Tsunami - Indian Ocean (NOAA.gov)
      Provides an animation that shows how the Indian Ocean tsunami struck almost every shore on earth. 2-05

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