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Terms: philosophers
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  1. Philosophers (Bjorn Christensson, Aachen)
      Provides biographies of 25 philosophers. 10-04

  2. Women Philosophers (
      "Women Philosophers have been at work since ancient times. My hope is that you will find the information on this web site both interesting and useful." 03-13

  3. -Philosophy Search Engine (
      Provides philosophers or information by topic. 06-09

  4. Nagarjuna (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
      Provides a biography and a summary of teachings. Although Nagarjuna was Indian, he heavily influenced Tibetan Buddhism.

      "Often referred to as 'the second Buddha' by Tibetan and East Asian Mahayana (Great Vehicle) traditions of Buddhism, Nagarjuna proffered trenchant criticisms of Brahminical and Buddhist substantialist philosophy, theory of knowledge and approaches to practice. Nagarjuna’s central concept of the 'emptiness (sunyata) of all things (dharmas),' which pointed to the incessantly changing and so never fixed nature of all phenomena, served as much as the terminological prop of subsequent Buddhist philosophical thinking as the vexation of opposed Vedic systems. The concept had fundamental implications for Indian philosophical models of causation, substance ontology, epistemology, conceptualizations of language, ethics and theories of world-liberating salvation, and proved seminal even for Buddhist philosophies in India, Tibet, China and Japan very different from Nagarjuna’s own. Indeed it would not be an overstatement to say that Nagarjuna’s innovative concept of emptiness, though it was hermeneutically appropriated in many different ways by subsequent philosophers in both South and East Asia, was to profoundly influence the character of Buddhist thought." 12-04

  5. Pre-Socratic Philosophy (
      "The pre-Socratic philosophers rejected traditional mythological explanations for the phenomena they saw around them in favor of more rational explanations." 01-06

  6. Introduction to Atheism (
      "Atheism is the disbelief[1] in the existence of any deities.[2] It is commonly defined as the denial of theism, amounting to the positive assertion that deities do not exist, or as the deliberate rejection of theism.[3][4][5] However, others—including most atheistic philosophers and groups—define atheism as the simple absence of belief in deities[6][7][8] (cf. nontheism), thereby designating many agnostics, and people who have never heard of gods, such as newborn children, as atheists as well.[9][10] In recent years, some atheists have adopted the terms strong and weak atheism to clarify whether they consider their stance one of positive belief (strong atheism) or the mere absence of belief (weak atheism).[11][12][13]" 01-07

  7. A View of Nontheism (
      "Armstrong acknowledges that the anthropomorphic personal God of monotheism is obsolete (hence dead), as is the remote Supreme Being posited by religious philosophers. A more plausible alternative is the God of mysticism, experienced as a reality that lies beyond human concepts, much the way that great art is felt. Not that this will be easy in an age of anomie, symbolized by handgun violence, hip-hop quality and an MTV attention span. Human kind cannot bear very much reality, T.S. Eliot wrote, but it also cannot endure too much emptiness and desolation. In her book's dying fall, Armstrong suggests that the ancient quest for life's meaning will go on." 11-07

  8. Animals Use Tools (CNN News)
      "For centuries, philosophers claimed that the ability to make tools separated man from beast."

      "But in 1960, a young wildlife researcher named Jane Goodall told her boss,anthropologist Louis Leakey, that she'd witnessed chimpanzees stripping leaves from twigs and using them to 'fish' for termites."

      "A stunned Leakey responded,'Now we must redefine tool, redefine Man, or accept chimpanzees as humans.' Of course, we now know that chimps were only the beginning." 04-10

  9. The Master Algorithm (MIT)
      "Philosophers have said that to know your present, look to the past, then, imagine the future. This aphorism holds true when it comes to understanding how machine learning works. First, we need to understand the underlying principles of where knowledge comes from, and how humans learn. But which principles should we follow? Figuring out the best approach falls to scholars like Pedro Domingos." 03-18

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