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Terms: oceanography
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  1. Are We Destroying the Oceans? (
      "But human-related injury to the oceans is rife. We have fished out an estimated 90% of the major commercial fish species that swim the high seas, including the giant and endangered blue fin tuna. The trawlers carrying out that destruction are raking the ocean floor, turning parts of the once vibrant continental shelf into so much mud. Climate change is warming the oceans, disrupting the fundamental structure of the marine food pyramid and destroying coral reefs. Meanwhile, increased concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere are making the seas acidic, which threatens to kill off species in large numbers. 'The ocean is becoming a desert,' says Jeremy Jackson, the director of the Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography."

      "Pollution that has washed off the land from sewage that contains chemical toxins to nitrate fertilizer from farmland has infected the oceans, destroying once vibrant coastal waters. But it's a problem we barely notice, since for many of us the oceans are distant and out of sight." 04-10

  2. -Growth in CO2 Rates in the Air Since 1958 (
      "The carbon dioxide data (red curve), measured as the mole fraction in dry air, on Mauna Loa constitute the longest record of direct measurements of CO2 in the atmosphere. They were started by C. David Keeling of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in March of 1958 at a facility of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [Keeling, 1976]. NOAA started its own CO2 measurements in May of 1974, and they have run in parallel with those made by Scripps since then [Thoning, 1989]. The black curve represents the seasonally corrected data."

      The chart shows that CO2 was around 310 parts per million in 1958 and is 392 in 2011. 05-11

  3. -01 Widgets for Websites on CO2 Levels in the Air (
      " distributes the world's latest data for atmospheric CO2 as measured at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii. This is where high-precision CO2 monitoring was started in March 1958 by Dr. Dave Keeling of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. The Mauna Loa Observatory is a remote location where CO2 is well mixed in the atmosphere, more than two miles above sea level." 06-12

  4. Ocean Currents Already Changing (New Scientist)
      "The dramatic finding comes from a study of ocean circulation in the North Atlantic, which found a 30% reduction in the warm currents that carry water north from the Gulf Stream."

      "Harry Bryden at the National Oceanography Centre in Southampton, UK, whose group carried out the analysis, says he is not yet sure if the change is temporary or signals a long-term trend. 'We don't want to say the circulation will shut down,' he told New Scientist. 'But we are nervous about our findings. They have come as quite a surprise.' " 10-13

  5. -Massive Craters Emerge From Melting Permafrost (
      "While staring down into the abyss of these craters is a scary thought, the release of large quantities of greenhouse gases from melting permafrost is existentially daunting. A study from earlier this year found that melting permafrost soil, which typically remains frozen all year, is thawing and decomposing at an accelerating rate. This is releasing more methane into the atmosphere, causing the greenhouse effect to increase global temperatures and creating a positive feedback loop in which more permafrost melts." 'The world is getting warmer, and the additional release of gas would only add to our problems,' said Jeff Chanton, the John Widmer Winchester Professor of Oceanography at Florida State and researcher on the study. According to Chanton, if the permafrost completely melts, there would be five times the current amount of carbon equivalent in the atmosphere." 08-14

  6. Most Greenhouse Gas Energy Goes into the Oceans (
      "For every 10 joules of energy that our greenhouse gas pollution traps here on Earth, about 9 of them end up in an ocean. There, the effects of global warming bite into fisheries, ecosystems and ice. But those effects are largely imperceptible to humans as invisible to a landlubber as an albatross chomping on a baited hook at the end of a long line."

      " 'We continue to be stunned at how rapidly the ocean is warming,' Sarah Gille, a Scripps Institution of Oceanography professor, said when we spoke with her earlier this year. 'Extra heat means extra sea level rise, since warmer water is less dense, so a warmer ocean expands.' " 11-14

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