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- Mars (Hamilton)
Includes pictures, articles, and links.
- News on Mars Missions (NASA)
Provides news on the missions to Mars, including Spirit and Opportunity. 1-04
- Mars Pathfinder Image Gallery (CNN)
Provides photos and links.
- Mars - Rusty Sunset on Mars Photograph
Provides a sunset from mars taken August 4, 1997.
- Mars Surveryor 1998 Climate Orbiter (NASA)
Provides information on space flights to Mars.
- Map - Mars Interactive Map (USG - Kanefsky)
Provides a clickable globe of Mars to zoom in to details. 7-99
- Why Explore Mars (NASA)
"After Earth, Mars is the planet with the most hospitable climate in the solar system. So hospitable that it may once have harbored primitive, bacteria-like life. Outflow channels and other geologic features provide ample evidence that billions of years ago liquid water flowed on the surface of Mars. Although liquid water may still exist deep below the surface of Mars, currently the temperature is too low and the atmosphere too thin for liquid water to exist at the surface." 12-03
- Terraforming Mars - Paintings (SpaceRef Interactive)
Provides artist depictions of Mars after bringing life to it. 02-06
- Mars (KidsAstronomy.com)
Provides a picture and information, such as the orbit, rotation, mass, distance from the sun, speed, volume relative to the earth, temperature, atmosphere, and diameter. Even tells how much you would weight if you were there. 11-00.
- Mars - Strong Evidence of Life (CNN)
Provides the conclusion of scientists that a rock, believed to be 4.5 billion years old, contains fossilized bacteria that originated on Mars. 12-00
- Marsalis, Wynton (Jazz at Lincoln Center)
Provides a biography of the artistic director. 2-01
- Water on Mars Debate (CNN - Space)
Describes the debate on whether there is water on Mars. An alternative theory is that the markings on Mars that look like they are caused by water are actually caused by liquid carbon dioxide. 4-01
- Water on Mars - Odyssey Mission (CNN - Space)
Provides a drawing of the spacecraft that will determine if Mars has water and possibly whether life ever existed there. 4-01
- Mars Exploration (NASA)
Provides news and other information on exploration of Mars. 4-01
- Terraforming Mars for Humans (HowStuffWorks.com)
Describes how Mars may be changed to allow humans to live there. 4-01
- Water on Mars - Odyssey Mission (HowStuffWorks.com)
Explains the Odyssey mission. 4-01
- Mars (National Geographic Society)
Describes Mars and missions to Mars. 4-01
- Mars Up Close (BBC News - Whitehouse)
Shows a picture from the Hubble telescope, from the closest Mars has been to Earth since 1988. 6-01
- Water May Flow on Mars (BBC News - Whitehouse)
Shows pictures that suggest that water may have flowed on the surface of Mars recently. 6-01
- Water on Mars - How It Is Detected (NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory)
Shows how water is detected on Mars, using a gamma ray spectrometer. Also provides the latest news on the Odyssey mission. 3-02
- 05-15-02 Mars May Have Underground Water (CNN)
Summarizes the finding of vast amounts of amounts of hydrogen under the ground surface on Mars. This probably means that Mars has vast amounts of water.
- Water Discovered on Mars (NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory)
Describes efforts to find water on Mars on the Odyssey project. 'The signal we're getting is loud and clear. There's lots of ice on Mars," Boynton said. "We're not just looking at surface frost. It's a fair amount of ice." Finding water on Mars means that Humans may be able to live there.
- 06-01-03 Europe Sends Probe to Mars (BBC News)
"The race to find life on Mars is set to begin on Monday with the launch of Europe's first voyage to another planet." 6-03
- 08-04-03 Mars Rover Expedition (CNN)
"A NASA robot packed with eight cameras, geology instruments and super-rugged wheels roared into space on Tuesday, one of three missions headed to Mars this summer during the most favorable cosmic conditions in centuries."
"Their geologic studies, scheduled to last three months, are designed to find physical evidence of water activity on Mars from billions of years ago, when the planet was thought to have been wetter and warmer -- and possibly inhabited by microbes."
"Like surfers who have been waiting for the big wave, the spacecraft are riding to the red planet as Mars and Earth make their nearest pass to each other since prehistoric times."
"A closer approach won't take place until 2287, according to Sky & Telescope Magazine." 8-03
- 08-24-03 Mars Closest Ever (USAToday.com - Vergano)
"On Aug. 28, the day after the closest passage, the alignment of the sun, Earth and Mars will be perfectly straight."
"But this week, the two planets pass as close as they ever get — 34.6 million miles (34,646,418.5 miles, to be precise) instead of the usual distance of about 60 million miles, says astronomer Myles Standish of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory." 8-03
- Best Ever Picture of Mars (NewScientist.com)
"The image can resolve features on the surface of Mars measuring just 27 kilometres across. 'These are the best that have ever been, and will ever be, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope,' says Michael Wolff of the Space Science Institute in Colorado, US." 8-03
- 12-23-03 Beagle 2 Sets Down on Mars (UPI.com)
"Early Christmas morning, London time, a 70-pound British spacecraft, launched last June aboard a Russian rocket and hitchhiking behind a sophisticated European Space Agency orbital vehicle, is set to touch down on the surface of Mars.The lander, named the Beagle 2 -- in honor of the sailing ship that transported Charles Darwin on his historic voyage to the Galapagos Islands in 1831 -- represents an ingenious but daring entry in what is becoming a race to explore the red planet and establish once and for all whether it ever has harbored living organisms." 12-03
- News on Missions to Mars (NASA - Jet Propulsion Laboratory)
Provides news on missions to Mars, including two unmanned rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, landing in January 2004.
- Facts and Myths About Mars (CNN News)
"We know a great deal about the red planet from centuries of work by astronomers and from decades of data beamed back from unmanned spacecraft like the twin Viking landers, which in 1976 became the first spacecraft to land successfully on the planet." 12-03
- Where Spirit and Opportunity Are Now in Mission to Mars (NASA)
Provides a computer simulation of the flights of the two Mars rovers. 12-03
- Marshall, George C. - Former Secretary of Defense (Nobel eMuseum)
"America's foremost soldier during World War II, served as chief of staff from 1939 to 1945, building and directing the largest army in history. A diplomat, he acted as secretary of state from 1947 to 1949, formulating the Marshall Plan, an unprecedented program of economic and military aid to foreign nations." 1-04
- Guide to Mars Mission (NASA)
Provides a guide to the Spirit mission to Mars.
- 01-04-04 Spirit Lands on Mars (NASA)
"NASA's robot geologist Spirit landed safely on Mars after a seven-month, 300 million-mile (483 million -kilometer) journey to seek evidence that liquid water may have existed there, a possible sign the planet once supported life." 1-04
- 01-04-04 Spirit Sends Photos from Mars (USAToday.com)
"Scientists at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory let out whoops of joy and embraced one another as signals from the Spirit rover indicated it had survived the landing."
"Within hours it began sending back photos of the Red Planet. Among the first was a tiny black and white image showing a sundial on the rover. Another showed the Martian horizon and portions of the lander." 1-04
- 01-06-04 Mars Rovers Questions and Answers (BBC News)
"Their mission is to examine their landing sites for past environmental conditions that may have been conducive to life." 1-04
- 01-08-04 Astronauts to be Sent to Mars (Bloomberg.com)
"President George W. Bush next week will announce plans to send U.S. astronauts to Mars and establish a permanent human outpost on the moon, an administration official said." 1-04
- 01-24-04 Second Rover Lands on Mars (CNN News)
"Opportunity, the second of NASA's twin rovers, has made the descent to the surface of Mars, touching down successfully at 0505 GMT Sunday (12:05 a.m. ET)." 1-04
- 03-02-04 Water Once Flowed on Mars (NASA.gov)
"Scientists examining what NASA's Opportunity is showing them about Mars rocks are seeing into the past, and what they're seeing indicates water once flowed there."
"The outcrop right next to where Opportunity landed holds evidence that the rocks have spent time drenched in liquid water." 3-04
- 03-29-04 Spirals in Mars Snow Caps Unraveled (CNN News)
"Odd spiraling gorges etched deep into the polar ice caps of Mars have stumped scientists for decades. The huge arcing troughs radiate outward like arms of a pinwheel, creating an overall shape that visually and mathematically resembles hurricanes, spiral galaxies and even some seashells."
"Now there is an apparent solution to the mystery, put forth by Jon Pelletier of the University of Arizona in Tucson."
"The tilted planet causes ice on one side of a crack to heat and vaporize, deepening and widening the crack. Then the water vapor hits the shady, colder side of the growing canyon and refreezes." 3-04
- Mars Coloring Book (EnchantedLearning.com)
Provides a picture, including the inner structure. 1-05
- Marshall, Thurgood (Awesome Library)
- Marshall, Thurgood (Biography.com)
Provides a picture and a short biography of this influential African American. 1-05
- Marshall, Thurgood (ThurgoodMarshall.com)
Provides a picture and a short biography of this influential African American. "Thurgood Marshall was America's leading radical. He led a civil rights revolution in the 20th century that forever changed the landscape of American society. But he is the least well known of the three leading black figures of this century. Martin Luther King Jr., with his preachings of love and non-violent resistance, and Malcolm X, the fiery street preacher who advocated a bloody overthrow of the system, are both more closely associate in the popular mind and myth with the civil rights struggle. But it was Thurgood Marshall, working through the courts to eradicate the legacy of slavery and destroying the racist segregation system of Jim Crow, who had an even more profound and lasting effect on race relations than either of King or X." 1-05
- Marshall, Thurgood (Thinkquest.com)
Provides a picture and a short biography of this influential African American. "He achieved national recognition for his civil rights achievements as a lawyer and later as an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States." 1-05
- Marshall, Thurgood (LandmarkCases.org)
"Thurgood Marshall was the great-grandson of a slave and the son of a dining car waiter and a schoolteacher. He was the first African American justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. He studied law at Howard University Law School in Washington, D.C. under Charles Hamilton Houston, who has been credited with transforming Howard into a laboratory for civil rights litigation."
"He was the mastermind behind the litigation strategy that challenged racial oppression in education, housing, transportation, electoral politics, and criminal justice. In one of his most famous cases and victories, he represented Linda Brown in the Brown v. Board of Education (1954) case." 1-05
- Marshall, Thurgood (Wikipedia.org)
"Thurgood Marshall (July 2, 1908 - January 24, 1993) was the first African-American justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. He was known for his liberal and pro-Civil rights positions." 1-05
- Methane, a Possible By-Product of Life, Found on Mars (Scientific American)
"Last Thursday, at the annual meeting of the American Astronomical Society's Division for Planetary Science (DPS), planetary astronomer Michael Mumma of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center announced hard-to-dispute evidence that the gas [methane] is really there. It may yet turn out to be nonbiological, but a living, breathing source is just as plausible."
"What makes methane so interesting is that the gas is unstable. On Earth, a methane molecule released into the air typically gets broken down by solar ultraviolet radiation in about 10 years. On Mars, farther from the sun, it lasts about 300 years. The persistence of the gas in our atmosphere indicates it is being replenished--in Earth's case, mostly by bacteria."
"Ultimately, however, pinning down the source of the methane will probably require measurements of the isotopic variants of methane, which is hard to do from Earth or Mars orbit but should be possible with landers or special spaceborne telescopes now on the drawing board. Thoughts of a living Mars will tantalize planetary scientists for years to come." 11-04
- Mars and Earth Comparison (Thinkquest.org)
Provides a simple comparison for a young audience. 7-05
- Questions About Mars (ASK and Astronomer for Kids)
Provides questions and answers for kids and adults. 01-06
- Olympus Mons on Mars (ASK and Astronomer for Kids)
"The highest mountain and volcano in the solar system is on the planet Mars. It is called Olympus Mons and is 16 miles (24 kilometers) high which makes it about three times higher than Mt. Everest. In addition to being very tall, it is also very wide (340 miles or 550 kilometers) and covers an area larger than the entire chain of Hawaiian islands. Olympus Mons is a very flat mountain which slopes by only 2 to 5 degrees. It is a shield volcano built up by eruptions of lava." 01-06
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