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Reference and Periodicals
- Iran - Culture and Religion (LonelyPlanet.com)
Provides a short description of the culture and Muslim religion of Iran. 9-01
- Islamic Reformation and the Trial of Hashem Aghajari (Iranian.com - The New York Times - Friedman)
"What's going on in Iran today is, without question, the most promising trend in the Muslim world. It is a combination of Martin Luther and Tiananmen Square - a drive for an Islamic reformation combined with a spontaneous student-led democracy movement."
Hashem Aghajari has been sentenced to death for calling for reformation in Iran. "Watch this story. It's the most important trial in the world today.""This movement faces a formidable opponent in Iran's conservative clerical leadership. It can't provide a quick fix to what ails relations between Islam and the West today. There is none. But it is still hugely important, because it reflects a deepening understanding by many Iranian Muslims that to thrive in the modern era they, and other Muslims, need an Islam different from the lifeless, anti-modern, anti-Western fundamentalism being imposed in Iran and propagated by the Saudi Wahhabi clerics. This understanding is the necessary condition for preventing the brewing crisis between Islam and the West -- which was triggered by 9/11 -- from turning into a war of civilizations." 12-02
- 10-10-03 Iranian Woman Wins Nobel Peace Prize (CNN News)
"Iranian activist Shirin Ebadi has won the 2003 Nobel Peace Prize for her focus on human rights, especially on the struggle to improve the status of women and children." 10-03
- 12-31-03 Bush Advisors See Syria, Iran, and North Korea as Next Targets (SMH.com.au - Rennie)
"Washington's hawks have sent a public manifesto to President George Bush demanding regime change in Syria and Iran and a Cuba-style military blockade of North Korea backed by planning for a pre-emptive strike on its nuclear sites." 12-03
- 09-01-04 Iran Steps Up Nuclear Program (CBS News)
"Iran has announced it plans to turn tons of uranium into the substance used to make enriched uranium, the U.N. atomic watchdog agency said Wednesday in a report stoking concern about Tehran's nuclear agenda." 8-04
- 11-14-04 UN: No Proof Iran Intended to Make Nuclear Bombs (CNN News)
"The U.N. nuclear watchdog says it has found that none of Iran's declared nuclear material has been diverted for military purposes."
"However, a spokesman for the International Atomic Energy Agency told CNN on Monday that officials still had questions about possible undeclared activities." 11-04
- -01-16-05 Pentagon May Be Planning a "Hit" on Iran (CNN News)
"The Pentagon Monday criticized an article by investigative journalist Seymour Hersh that says the United States has been carrying out reconnaissance missions in Iran to identify nuclear, chemical and missile sites for possible airstrikes as soon as this summer."
"[Former Secretary of Defense William] Cohen noted that Hersh's article has not been 'categorically denied' by the Bush administration."
" 'So there seems to be some confirmation that there is a fairly serious effort under way to gather this kind of information for potential military operations,' he said."1-05
- -01-20-05 Iran Responds to Talk of U.S. Attack (CBS News)
"Iran has plans to defend itself should the United States make any aggressive moves, President Mohammad Khatami said Thursday, but he added that the possibility of an attack 'is very low' because Washington has too many problems in Iraq." 1-05
- -02-18-05 Iran Talks May Fail Without USA (Bloomberg.com)
"Germany, France and the U.K. may fail to dissuade Iran from seeking nuclear weapons unless the U.S. joins European-led talks with Iran's Islamic government, Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder's adviser on U.S. relations said."
"The U.S. must back Europe's attempt to resolve the dispute over Iran's nuclear program through diplomacy 'because only then will we manage to create an environment for these efforts to succeed,' said Karsten Voigt in a telephone interview from New York, where he is meeting with U.S. officials in preparation for a visit to Europe by President George W. Bush next week." 2-05
- -05-21-05 Iraq and Iran Blame Saddam for 1980 and 1990 Wars (CNN News)
"Iraq and Iran have issued a joint statement blaming Saddam Hussein and his henchmen for being the aggressors in the 1980-88 war between the two countries and Iraq’s 1990 invasion of Kuwait." 5-05
- -06-17-05 Iranians Electing New President (CNN News)
"Surveys show former President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani is likely headed toward a runoff against either a reformist candidate or a conservative allied with the country's powerful Shiite hierarchy."
"Seven candidates are vying to succeed President Mohammed Khatami, a reform-minded cleric barred from seeking a third term."
"Although Khatami was elected by landslides in 1997 and 2001, many of his initiatives were blocked by clerical hard-liners who hold vast power under Iran's Islamic system of government."
"With high unemployment and a sense of deep social dissatisfaction -- particularly among young people and women -- even conservative candidates talked the language of democracy and reform during the campaign. 6-05
- -06-25-05 Rumsfeld Slams Iran's Elections (CNN News)
"Speaking on 'Fox News Sunday,' Rumsfeld said the Iranian government had paved the way for ultra-conservative Tehran mayor Mahmoud Ahmadinejad to win the post."
"The Iranian president does not run the country, supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khameinei has the final word in matters of state in the Islamic theocracy. But the United States and others hoped the victor in the election would be someone they deemed more committed to democratic reforms." 6-05
- Iran Ultra-Conservative Becomes President (BBC News)
"Iran's new ultra-conservative President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad has been confirmed in office, following his surprise election victory in July." 8-05
- -08-11-05 Iran Vows to Export Nuclear Fuel (Bloomberg.com)
"Iran rejected a resolution from the United Nations nuclear watchdog agency urging it to freeze a uranium processing program, and vowed to become a nuclear fuel exporter within the next decade." 8-05
- -08-13-05 Germany Warns U.S. on Use of Force in Iran (BBC News)
"German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder has warned the US to back away from the possibility of military action against Iran over its nuclear programme." 8-05
- 08-13-05 Bush Raises Possibility of Military Action Against Iran (BBC News)
"President George W. Bush yesterday raised the possibility of a U.S. military response to Iran's decision to restart its nuclear energy program."
" 'We've used force in the recent past to secure our country,' Bush added, when asked to elaborate."
"Western countries including the U.S., France and Germany, say they are worried the Islamic state will secretly develop nuclear weapons. Iran is the second-largest oil producer in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries." 8-05
- -09-17-05 Iranian President Pledges Transparency for Nuclear (Bloomberg.com)
"Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said his government would initiate a new ``partnership'' with companies and other nations to create confidence that its nuclear program won't lead to development of atomic weapons."
"Ahmadinejad, who called the announcement a 'far-reaching step' to inspire confidence in his nation's peaceful intentions, also said Iran would continue talks with the U.K., France and Germany on the issue. He called on the UN General Assembly to establish a committee to study ways to achieve total nuclear weapons disarmament, while saying Iran would cooperate with the world body's Vienna-based nuclear watchdog agency."
"At the same time, Ahmadinejad said Iran would continue a program of nuclear enrichment for peaceful energy production." 9-05
- -11-26-05 Iranian President Accuses President Bush of War Crimes (Fox News)
" Iran's hard-line president said Saturday the Bush administration should be tried on war crimes charges, and he denounced the West for pressuring Iran to curb its controversial nuclear program."
"Ahmadinejad did not elaborate, but he apparently was referring to the U.S. military's reported use of artillery shells packed with depleted uranium, which is far less radioactive than natural uranium and is left over from the process of enriching uranium for use as nuclear fuel."
"Since the Iraq war started in 2003, American forces have fired at least 120 tons of shells packed with depleted uranium, an extremely dense material used by the U.S. and British militaries to penetrate tank armor. Once fired, the shells melt, vaporize and turn to dust." 11-05
- -11-29-05 Iran May Drop Voluntary Compliance With I.A.E.A. Nuclear Requirements (WorldPress.org)
"On Nov. 20, four days before the U.N. International Atomic Energy Agency’s 35-member board began its three-day November meeting, the Majlis (Iran’s parliament) adopted a resolution requiring the government to cancel all its voluntary measures of cooperation with the I.A.E.A. if Iran is referred by the board to the U.N. Security Council for 'action.' "
"The Western corporate media presented the Majlis decision as a threat by Tehran to block U.N. inspections of Iran’s nuclear facilities. However, Majlis member Kazem Jalali told Associated Press that the resolution required the government to only comply with its legal obligations under the 1970 international nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (N.P.T.) and Iran’s safeguards agreement with the I.A.E.A., signed in 1974."
"More than a year ago, I.A.E.A. director general Mohammed ElBaradei reported to the I.A.E.A. board that 'all the declared nuclear material in Iran has been accounted for, and therefore such material is not diverted to prohibited activities,' i.e., to the development of nuclear weapons." 11-05
- Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud - President of Iran (ABC News)
"Until a few months ago, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was the mayor of Tehran. This son of a blacksmith was elected president of the country by promising to give poor people a share of Iran's oil wealth."
"From his first days in office, he began to express a fervent belief in the Shiite prophecy that the 12th imam, or the messiah, would return to save the believers and kill the infidels. What really got many people's attention was that the new president said it would happen in the next two years." 01-06
- McCain: Military Action an Option in Iran (CNN News)
"Republican and Democratic U.S. lawmakers said Sunday there must be major immediate diplomatic action on Iran's nuclear activities, and that the option of military action cannot be taken off the table." 01-06
- -01-16-06 World Leaders: Iran Must Not Keep Nuclear Program (USA Today)
"Russia and China agreed with the United States and its European allies Monday that Iran must fully suspend its nuclear program, but the countries stopped short of demanding referral to the U.N. Security Council, Britain's Foreign Office said." 01-06
- -02-04-06 Iran to Resume Nuclear Development Activities (CNN News)
"A top Iranian official said Saturday his country will resume full nuclear-enrichment activities after the nuclear watchdog agency voted to report Iran to the U.N. Security Council over its nuclear program." 02-06
- -04-08-06 Journalist: Bush Considering Nuclear Attack Against Iran (MSNBC News)
"The U.S. administration is stepping up plans for a possible air strike on Iran, despite publicly pushing for a diplomatic solution to a dispute over its nuclear ambitions, according to a report by influential investigative journalist Seymour Hersh." 04-06
- -04-13-06 U.S. Official: Iran "Some Years Away" From Making a Nuclear Bomb (Bloomberg.org)
"Iran is 'some years away' from developing a nuclear bomb, said Thomas Fingar, deputy U.S. director of national intelligence." 04-06
- 09-14-06 U.N. Nuclear Agency Calls U.S. Report on Iran "Outrageous and Dishonest" (CBS News)
" A recent House of Representatives committee report on Iran's nuclear capability is “outrageous and dishonest” in trying to make a case that Tehran's program is geared toward making weapons, a senior official of the U.N. nuclear watchdog has said." 09-06
- Cyrus the Great (IranChamber.com)
"Cyrus (580-529 BC) was the first Achaemenid Emperor. He founded Persia by uniting the two original Iranian Tribes- the Medes and the Persians. Although he was known to be a great conqueror, who at one point controlled one of the greatest Empires ever seen, he is best remembered for his unprecedented tolerance and magnanimous attitude towards those he defeated." 01-07
- -01-11-07 U.S. Attacks Iran's Consulate (MSNBC News)
"Iraqi officials said Thursday that the U.S.-led multinational forces detained five Iranians in an overnight raid on Tehran’s diplomatic mission in the northern city of Irbil." 01-07
- -Editorial: U.S. Combating Iran Through Economics (MSNBC News - Hirsh)
"[Stuart] Levey, the undersecretary of the Treasury for terrorism and financial intelligence, has been leading the U.S. campaign to isolate and slowly asphyxiate the Iranian economy." 01-07
- -Editorial: Reaction to Bush's Plans to Expand War Into Iran (MSNBC News)
"Only this president, only in this time, only with this dangerous, even messianic certitude, could answer a country demanding an exit strategy from Iraq, by offering an entrance strategy for Iran." 01-07
- 01-14-07 Iraqi Minister Asks for Release of Iranians (MSNBC New)
"The Iraqi foreign minister called Sunday for the release of five Iranians detained by U.S. forces in what he said was a legitimate mission in northern Iraq, but he stressed that foreign intervention to help insurgents would not be tolerated."
"The two-pronged statement by Hoshyar Zebari highlighted the delicate balance facing the Iraqi government as it tries to secure Baghdad with the help of American forces while maintaining ties with its neighbors, including U.S. rivals Iran and Syria." 01-07
- -Editorial: How Iran Has Been Emboldened by U.S. Failures (International Tribune)
"The Bush/Cheney build-up against Iran is taking shape. The terrible irony is that there are much more persuasive grounds for a full- scale confrontation, if not necessarily full- fledged war, with Iran than there were against Saddam Hussein's regime in Iraq. And irony of ironies: the ability of the United States to lead a serious campaign against Iran's newly emboldened regime has been undermined significantly by the Bush administration's own failings and lack of strategic vision."
"Briefly, five critical mistakes by the White House placed political and ideological aims ahead of the national interest, and left the United States in a weaker position to deal with Iran's growing assertiveness and lack of respect for U.S. power." 02-07
- -02-08-07 Doubts About Iran (MSNBC News)
"President Bush insists that Iraq's neighbor is fueling the insurgency in Baghdad. Does the intelligence back him up?" 02-07
- Lifestyles of Women in Iran (Time Magazine)
"These girls came of age in the same culture as my friend's little girl, into a society whose middle-class value system was being transformed, where laws forced religious observance, and the lines between an individual's private values, the force of habit, and social background blurred. But rather than turning out uniformly devout or predictably rebellious, they are more independent than any generation before them, negotiating their way through society, and around hejab, with great competence." 02-07
- Provides a Petition for Preventing a War With Iran (StopIranWar.com)
"All Americans want to stop Iran from developing nuclear weapons and interfering on the ground inside Iraq. Yet President Bush’s saber rattling gives the US little additional leverage to engage and dissuade Iran, and, more than likely, simply accelerates a dangerous slide into war. The United States can do better than this." 02-07
- -03-06-07 Proposed Legislation Requires President to Gain Approval Before Going to War With Iran (Washington Times)
"Freshman Sen. James H. Webb Jr. yesterday introduced legislation to force President Bush to seek congressional authorization before using force against Iran."
"He said the measure is meant to restore a system of legislative checks on executive power that he thinks Mr. Bush has skirted since Congress approved the Iraq war in October 2002. Though Mr. Webb wants troops to come home from Iraq as soon as possible, he noted Congress' inability to block funding U.S. forces in that conflict." 03-07
- -03-25-07 Blair: Iran's Capture of British Sailors "Very Serious" (MSBC News)
British Prime Minister Tony Blair said Sunday that 15 British sailors and marines captured by Iran as they searched for smugglers off the Iraqi coast had been outside Iranian waters, and warned that Britain viewed their situation as 'very serious.' " 03-07
- -03-28-07 Iran TV Shows Captured British Sailors (BBC News)
"Iranian state television has broadcast an interview with captured British female sailor Faye Turney and footage of the 14 servicemen seized with her." 03-07
- -Editorial: Will the U.S. Attack Iran? (Time.com)
"Reports that the Bush Administration will put Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps on the terrorism list can be read in one of two ways: it's either more bluster or, ominously, a wind-up for a strike on Iran. Officials I talk to in Washington vote for a hit on the IRGC, maybe within the next six months. And they think that as long as we have bombers and missiles in the air, we will hit Iran's nuclear facilities. An awe and shock campaign, lite, if you will. But frankly they're guessing; after Iraq the White House trusts no one, especially the bureaucracy."
"Strengthening the Administration's case for a strike on Iran, there's a belief among neo-cons that the IRGC is the one obstacle to democratic and a friendly Iran. They believe that if we were to get rid of the IRGC, the clerics would fall, and our thirty-years war with Iran over. It's another neo-con delusion, but still it informs White House thinking."
"And what do we do if just the opposite happens — a strike on Iran unifies Iranians behind the regime? An Administration official told me it's not even a consideration. 'IRGC IED's are a casus belli for this administration. There will be an attack on Iran.' " 08-07
- U.S. Report on Iran Branded "Misleading" by Regulatory Agency (BBC News)
"The UN nuclear watchdog has protested to the US government over a report on Iran's nuclear programme, calling it 'erroneous' and 'misleading'." 09-07
- -09-26-07 Senate Urges Bush to Declare Iranian Guard a Terrorist Group (New York Times)
"The Senate approved a resolution today urging the Bush administration to designate Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps as a foreign terrorist organization, and lawmakers briefly set aside partisan differences to approve a measure calling for stepped-up diplomacy to forge a political solution in Iraq." 09-07
- -10-25-07 U.S. Imposes Sanctions on Iran (MSNBC News)
"The Bush administration imposed sweeping new sanctions against Iran Thursday — the harshest in nearly three decades — cutting off key Iranian military and banking institutions from the American financial system for Tehran’s alleged support for terrorism and nuclear weapons ambitions."
"But Russian President Vladimir Putin on Thursday quickly opposed the use of sanctions. 'Why worsen the situation by threatening sanctions and bring it to a dead end?' Putin said. 'It's not the best way to resolve the situation by running around like a madman with a razor blade in his hand.' " 10-07
- Does the US Have Nuclear Bomb Evidence Against Iran? (MSNBC News)
"The accusations come almost every day from U.S. officials: Iran is seeking a nuclear weapon. Sponsoring terrorism. Killing Americans in Iraq. Intent on Israel’s destruction. Yet, some officials add, its government will collapse if only given a push."
"Does the U.S. have solid proof that Iran is guilty of such a long list of misdeeds? Or is the case against Iran — and the certainty of its ill intent — a bit fuzzy?" 11-07
- -12-03-07 US: Iran Ended Nuclear Arms Work in 2003 (MSNBC News)
"Iran halted its nuclear weapons development program in the fall of 2003 under international pressure but is continuing to enrich uranium, which means it may still be able to develop a weapon between 2010 and 2015, senior U.S. intelligence officials said Monday." 11-07
- -12-04-07 Bush Responds to News that Iran Stopped Nuclear Arms Efforts in 2003 (MNBC News)
"Bush spoke one day after a new national intelligence estimate found that Iran halted its nuclear weapons program in the fall of 2003, largely because of international scrutiny and pressure."
" 'To me, the NIE (National Intelligence Estimate) provides an opportunity for us to rally the international community -- to continue to rally the community -- to pressure the Iranian regime to suspend its program,' the president said. 'What's to say they couldn't start another covert nuclear weapons program.' "
"He also asserted that the report means 'nothing's changed,' focusing on the previous existence of a weapons program and not addressing the discrepancy between his rhetoric and the disclosure that weapons program has been frozen for four years." 11-07
- -07-09-08 Iran Tests Missiles (MSNBC News)
"Iran test-fired nine long- and medium-range missiles Wednesday during war games that officials said were intended to show the country can retaliate against any U.S. or Israeli attack, state television reported." 07-08
- Editorial: Four Prerequisites Needed Before Direct Talks With Iran (Time.com)
"Looks like Dennis Ross is about to become the U.S. envoy in charge of Iran. But I'm not sure that sending Ross directly into the fray is the best way to launch negotiations. " 01-09
- -04-06-09 How Ahmad Batebi Survived Torture in Iran (CBS News)
"Asked if he feels free now, he told Cooper, 'No, I don't feel free. I have a responsibility to the people imprisoned in Iran whose human rights are being violated. I have to get their message out. And it’s a big responsibility that doesn't leave one free. But to an extent I do feel free. I live in a free country and I've left prison.' " 04-09
- 06-14-09 True Power in Iran (Time.com)
"Despite the convulsions in Tehran's streets in the aftermath of a disputed presidential election, Iranians — and the smart folks in Washington — know that Iran's presidency is not the seat of executive power. Unelected mullahs hold veto power over the decisions of the elected government, and their Supreme Leader, currently Ayatullah Ali Khamenei, must approve all political policies and make the key foreign policy and security decisions. No one can run for president without the approval of the clerics, and they routinely narrow the field to those deemed acceptable within the parameters of the Islamic Revolution."
"Yet Khamenei has now done something extraordinary to the regime's democratic apparatus. Even though Iran's Electoral Commission allows three days to hear challenges before presenting results to Khamenei for approval, the Supreme Leader rushed to put his seal of approval on the outcome, and warned all political factions to refrain from challenging it." 06-09
- Twitter Revolution in Iran (ABC News)
" 'Is this the first Twitter fueled revolution?' In less than 140 characters, one tweeter summed up the overwhelming response to social networking site Twitter’s remarkable involvement in the protest over the Iranian election. Many critics of Twitter scoffed at the idea that anything substantial could come out of so-called tweets, but the substance coming out of Iran is real. The tweets are in every language from Farsi and Chinese to English, and they are conveying the thoughts and emotions of those in Iran where media is highly censored." 06-09
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[Dr. Jerry Adams at email@example.com.]