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- Teacher's Guide to Student-Built Experiments (Exploratorium)
Provides over a dozen projects. 3-02
- NASA Biology Experiments in Space (NASA - NeurOn)
Provides background information, as well as virtual experiences to involve students in the educational process of science.
- Science Experiments for the Family (NASA - Spaceplace)
Provides 11 activities related to science or the exploration of space. 9-01
- Gravity Shielding Experiments (Skeggs)
Describes experiments to followup on the report of Podkletnov that he was able to shield some materials from gravity. Some call it an anti-gravity device. 8-02
- Gravity Shielding Experiments (Fusion Information Center - Dart)
"Although Podkletnov has said that tests ruled out the possibility that the claimed weight loss was the result of magnetic fields or air flow, his statement is suspect." Provides an alternative explanation to the "anti-gravity" effect that Podkletnov claimed for his experiments. 8-02
- Gravity Shielding Experiments (Interprise Mission - Matthews and sample)
"Scientists in Finland are about to reveal details of the world's first anti-gravity device. Measuring about 12 inch across, the device is said to reduce significantly the weight of anything suspended over it."
"The claim -- which has been rigorously examined by scientists, and is due to appear in a physics journal next month -- could spark a technological revolution. By combatting gravity, the most ubiquitous force in the universe, everything from transport to power generation could be transformed." Includes a diagram. 8-02
- Gravity Shielding Experiments - Applications (Brown)
Discusses uses of a possible "anti-gravity" device, based on the work of Eugene Podkletnov. Includes a diagram. 8-02
- Gravity Shielding Experiments Explained (PopularMechanics.com - Wilson)
"Isaac Newton, the first physicist, described gravity as an attraction between two masses (see illustration at top of page). Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity suggests mass actually causes space-time to warp around it. Imagine, for instance, the indentation created by placing a bowling ball on a soft bed.
Both theories explain why apples fall from trees. Scientists consider Einstein's theory superior because it explains also why light–which has no mass–appears to bend in strong gravitational fields."
"Most physicists believe that when NASA flips the switch on its gravity modification experiment, absolutely nothing will happen. Then again, it could start the countdown to a bold new era in space exploration." Editor's Note - The article is dated December, 1997. In August, 2002, Boeing Aircraft announced that it is building an anti-gravity device for NASA. 8-02
- 02-05-03 Experiments in Space - A Legacy of the Space Shuttle Columbia (NewScientist.com - Knight)
"Much of the scientific research conducted during the shuttle Columbia's last mission was lost with the lives of its seven crew members." "But not all their work was destroyed. 'Some of it was down-linked to the ground prior to re-entry,' says Ron Dittemore, space shuttle program director. 'Some of it will be their legacy.' " 2-03
- Showbiz Science Experiments (Education World - Cobb)
Provides interesting experiments for children and teens to perform. 12-04
- Design of Experiments (Wikipedia.org)
Provides descriptions and definitions of key terms. 8-05
- Experiments Help Explain "Floppy" Space Molecule (Physorg.com)
"A laboratory method developed for making and analyzing cold, concentrated samples of a mysterious 'floppy' molecule thought to be abundant only in outer space has revealed new data that help explain the molecule's properties."
"The advance, described in the Jan. 6 issue of Science,* is a step toward overcoming a decades-old challenge in chemistry--explaining reactions that occur within very cold clouds among the stars, and perhaps for developing new chemical processes." 01-06
- Experiments, Lessons, and Projects in Astronomy (TeacherCertification.org)
Provides activities. 04-10
- Viet Nam Vets Feel Abandoned After Secret Experiments (CNN News)
"This top secret Cold War research program initially looked for ways to defend against a chemical or biological attack by the Soviet Union, thought to be far ahead of the United States in 'psycho-chemical' warfare. But the research expanded into offensive chemical weapons, including one that could, according to one Army film obtained by CNN, deliver a 'veritable chemical ambush' against an enemy." 03-12
- Space - Experiments in Space (NASA - NeurOn)
Provides lesson plans and resources for lesson plans for virtual experiments to be conducted in parallel with the astronauts. Allows students to participate in the experiments by sending results to NASA for comparison of results. NASA even provides a kit for teachers to use.
- Science Experiments for the Family (NASA - Spaceplace)
Provides 11 activities related to science or the exploration of space. 09-09
- Science Projects (Exploratorium)
Provides dozens of science experiments. 3-00
- Simple Machines Explained (Candelora)
"This is a series of experiments about simple machines: levers, wheels and inclined planes. This unit was designed for use in the third grade." 12-01
- Intelligent Design as Science (NewYorker.com)
"Unlike earlier generations of creationists—the so-called Young Earthers and scientific creationists—proponents of intelligent design do not believe that the universe was created in six days, that Earth is ten thousand years old, or that the fossil record was deposited during Noah’s flood. (Indeed, they shun the label 'creationism' altogether.)"
"Though people often picture science as a collection of clever theories, scientists are generally staunch pragmatists: to scientists, a good theory is one that inspires new experiments and provides unexpected insights into familiar phenomena. By this standard, Darwinism is one of the best theories in the history of science: it has produced countless important experiments (let’s re-create a natural species in the lab—yes, that’s been done) and sudden insight into once puzzling patterns (that’s why there are no native land mammals on oceanic islands). In the nearly ten years since the publication of Behe’s book, by contrast, I.D. has inspired no nontrivial experiments and has provided no surprising insights into biology. As the years pass, intelligent design looks less and less like the science it claimed to be and more and more like an extended exercise in polemics."
"Biologists aren’t alarmed by intelligent design’s arrival in Dover and elsewhere because they have all sworn allegiance to atheistic materialism, they’re alarmed because intelligent design is junk science." 8-05
- F-Test (University of Duesseldorf)
"We can easily do power analyses for single-factor and multi-factor experiments. In G*Power, you select F-Test (ANOVA), Global for ANOVA, fixed effects: Single-factor designs, or F-Test (ANOVA), Special for ANOVA, fixed effects: Multi-factor designs, ANOVA, fixed effects: Planned comparisons, and Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA)." 8-05
- Chimpanzee Genome and Human Evolution (Nature.com)
"What makes us human? We share more than 98% of our DNA and almost all of our genes with our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. Comparing the genetic code of humans and chimps will allow the study of not only our similarities, but also the minute differences that set us apart."
"Providing a resource for more than just genomics, Nature presents a special web focus to commemorate the genome of Pan troglodytes. Alongside the first unequivocal fossil evidence of the genus Pan, leading researchers have kindly supplied Nature with previously-unseen film of experiments and observations of chimps in the wild and from world-renowned sanctuaries."
- Group Conformity and "Doing Wrong" (SocialPC.com)
"Ash designed an experiment where there could be absolutely no doubt about whether subjects would be conforming or not and it was absolutely clear what they were conforming to. He wanted to be able to put an individual under various amounts of group pressure that he could control and manipulate and measure their willingness to conform to the groups response to something that was clearly wrong. Ash conducted what are now described as classic experiments in conformity."
"Each naive therefore had 7 opportunities to conform to something they could see to be wrong. One third of the naives conformed on all 7 occasions. About three quarters of them conformed on at least one occasion. Only about one fifth refused to conform at all. Just to be certain that the result was due to the influence of the confederates responses and not to the difficulty of the task Ash used a control group. Each control subject was asked to make a judgement individually - there were no pressures at all. Over 90% gave correct responses." 01-06
- -09-27-06 Torture Bill Near Passage (MSNBC News)
"While the bill would grant defendants more legal rights than they had under the administration's old system, it nevertheless would eliminate rights usually granted in civilian and military courts."
"The measure also provides extensive definitions of war crimes such as torture, rape and biological experiments - but gives Bush broad authority to decide which other techniques U.S. interrogators can legally use. The provisions are intended to protect CIA interrogators from being prosecuted for war crimes." 09-06
- Your Boss Really May Be Clueless (Live Science)
"Your boss and other people in power often really have no idea what you and others feel and think, new experiments suggest." 04-07
- Out-of-Body Experiences Created in Lab (MSNBC News)
"New virtual-reality experiments show the brain can be tricked into believing it's outside the body, lending credence to the strange claims of some patients and shedding light on how the brain might generate its 'self-image.' " 07-07
- Two Simple Methods of Reducing Arsenic in Groundwater (Hussam)
"The first method is simply leaving the groundwater for a few hours in the container and collecting the water by decanting. This method can be used to remove 50-70% arsenic from drinking water containing soluble iron. The efficiency of this method is discussed in relation to water chemistry parameters and chemical equilibrium models. The second method consists of a simple three-pitcher (locally known as ‘3-kalshi’) filtration assembly made entirely from readily available local materials. In a 3- kalshi assembly, the first kalshi has iron chips and coarse sand, the second kalshi has wood charcoal and fine sand, and the third kalshi is the collector for filtered water. About 240 L of arsenic contaminated groundwater and groundwater spiked with high concentrations of both As(III) and As(V) were filtered. It has been shown that more toxic As(III) can be removed from 800 ppb to below the detection limit of 2 ppb. The As(total) can be removed to a level below 10 ppb for most samples even at the highest input concentration of 1000 ppb As(total). The dissolved iron concentration decreased from an average 6000 ppb to 200 ppb. Calculations based on compound formation and arsenic adsorption on hydrous ferric oxide show that, with a constant input of dissolved iron the arsenic removal capacity increases linearly with each kalshi of filtration. The decrease in conductivity by 35% of the original value indicates substantial removal of dissolved ions. The final water quality was comparable to that of the guideline values suggested by World Health Organization and Bangladesh."
"In both series of experiments As(III) was nearly completely removed from a maximum value of 800 ppb to below the detection limit of the instrument (ca. 2 ppb) for all influx. It appears that most of the As(III) is oxidized into more stable As(V) and precipitated in A and B kalshis. It has been recognized that As(III) is more prevalent in groundwater than was previously believed which is a concern because As(III) is more toxic than As(V) (Korte, et. al., 1991; Knowles, et. al., 1983). In Bangladesh, the groundwater contains 43-98% of arsenic in the form of As(III). For direct consumption, this is possibly one of the most toxic groundwater known today. Therefore, the removal of As(III) by any filtration procedure is crucial. In contrast, negligible removal of As(III) from drinking water was achieved by coagulation with alum (Hering, et. al., 1996)."
"The maximum desirable concentration of iron in water is 300 ppb and the maximum permissible concentration is 1000 ppb (see Table 2). Besides causing pots and pans to become brown, at high concentration it can be toxic to small infants (Miah, 1996). The concentration of soluble iron originally present in the well water has decreased significantly, form 6000 ppb to a range of 0 - 480 ppb with an average of 200 ppb which is below the permissible level for most cases. Dissolved iron, primarily present as Fe(II) in groundwater plays a very significant role in removing arsenic and other trace metals." 11-07
- -04-16-08 Chemical in Plastic Bottles May Be Toxic (CBS News)
"The federal National Toxicology Program said Tuesday that experiments on rats found precancerous tumors, urinary tract problems and early puberty when the animals were fed or injected with low doses of the plastics chemical bisphenol A." 04-08
- Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Shut Down With Damages (MSNBC News)
"Gillies said such failures occur frequently in particle accelerators, but it was made more complicated in this case because the Large Hadron Collider operates at near absolute zero, colder than outer space, for maximum efficiency."
"The CERN experiments with the particle collider hope to reveal more about 'dark matter,' antimatter and possibly hidden dimensions of space and time. They could also find evidence of a hypothetical particle — the Higgs boson — which is sometimes called the 'God particle' because it is believed to give mass to all other particles, and thus to matter that makes up the universe." 09-08
- Coal Pyrolysis (Caltech.edu)
Provides results of experiments with pyrolysis of coal. 06-09
- Review of Literature Summary on Biochar (CSIRO.au)
"Studies of charcoal from natural fire and ancient anthropogenic activity indicate millennial-scale stability. However, it is difficult to establish the half-life of modern biochar products using short experiments due to the presence of small amounts of labile components, partial oxidation and biotic or abiotic surface reactions. At the moment there is no established method to artificially-age biochar and assess likely long-term trajectories."
"While biochar surpasses other biological forms of C with regard to its stability, estimates on the mean turnover time of biochar in soil vary from hundreds to thousands to tens of thousands of years."
"Analysis of a limited number of biochar samples has indicated concentrations of toxic combustion products such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are not at environmental risk level." 06-09
- Brains Have Difficulty Telling Time (New York Times)
"Finally, the mind is perfectly capable of interpreting a fast-forward year, or decade, as something other than a frittering away of opportunities for self-improvement. In another series of experiments published in Psychological Science, psychologists found that when people were tricked into believing that more time had passed than was really the case, they assumed they must have been having more fun. The perception heightened their enjoyment of music and eased their annoyance at doing menial tasks." 01-10
- Pigs Are the Smartest Domestic Animal (Mamals.Suite101.com)
"Intelligence research was done with pigs in the 1990s. One of the experiments was to train the pigs to move the cursor on a video screen with their snouts. When the pigs used the cursors again, they were able to distinguish between the scribbles they already knew, and the scribbles they were seeing for the first time. The pigs learned this skill as fast as the chimpanzees." 03-10
- -Offshore Wind Farms (CNN New)
"The Wind Lens has the potential to triple the amount of electricity produced by offshore turbines according to experiments. Kyushu University professor Yuji Ohya spoke of the merits of the 112-meter diameter structures being able to increase energy output "two or three fold", as well as being about to reduce the dreaded noise pollution so often associated with wind turbines, and improve safety too." 08-10
- A Guide for Conducting Biochar Trials (IBI.org)
"Biochar has been shown to benefit crop growth and yield, and is a promising material for use in agriculture. However, as is the case for any soil amendment, its efficacy must be shown in a variety of cropping systems, and at this time (2009) optimal application rates have yet to be determined. Also, many groups and individuals coming from a variety of backgrounds are interested in testing biochar. This is why the International Biochar Initiative (IBI) has produced this guide, to help those interested in testing biochar in soil to design and run sound experiments, the results of which can be used to draw strong conclusions and can be disseminated to a wide audience." 04-11
- Landmark Experiment Confirms Space-Time Vortex Around the Earth (PC World)
"In order to test Einstein’s theory, scientists sent a spinning gyroscope to orbit around the Earth. Space and time are melded together into something like a four-dimensional quilt (don't try making one at home), aptly called space-time. The Earth applies weight to this quilt, causing an indentation 'much like a heavy person sitting in the middle of a trampoline.' Gravity, then, is the path an object takes following the curve of that indentation."
"Einstein theorized that the Earth’s rotation then causes that indentation to twist into a four dimensional swirl. With the axis of the gyroscope’s spin pointed at a fixed object (like a star), the Theory of Relativity indicates that without that swirl (or its 'frame-dragging effect') it would remain that way indefinitely, but with it the axis should drift out of alignment over time. The Gravity Probe B showed that Einstein was right, as the axis did in fact stray."
"The experiment resulted in calculations exactly as Einstein predicted. The Gravity Probe B Mission will go down in history as one of the greatest physics experiments of all time. Clifford Will, who chairs an independent panel of the National Research Council tasked with monitoring and reviewing the results of the Gravity Probe B Mission said, 'this will be written up in textbooks as one of the classic experiments in the history of physics.' " 05-11
- The "Replication Gap" in Science (New York Times)
"One of the great strengths of science is that it can fix its own mistakes. 'There are many hypotheses in science which are wrong,' the astrophysicist Carl Sagan once said. 'That’s perfectly all right: it’s the aperture to finding out what’s right. Science is a self-correcting process.' ”
"If only it were that simple."
Actually, the author claims, scientists are typically slow to correct incorrect conclusions through the use of replications.
"Why? One simple answer is that it takes a lot of time to look back over other scientists’ work and replicate their experiments. Scientists are busy people, scrambling to get grants and tenure. As a result, papers that attract harsh criticism may nonetheless escape the careful scrutiny required if they are to be refuted."
"Even when scientists rerun an experiment, and even when they find that the original result is flawed, they still may have trouble getting their paper published. The reason is surprisingly mundane: journal editors typically prefer to publish groundbreaking new research, not dutiful replications." 06-11
- Higgs Boson Gets Clearer (CNN News)
"Finding the Higgs boson would help explain the origin of mass, one of the open questions in physicists' current understanding of the way the universe works."
"Scientists working on two independent experiments at the Tevatron accelerator in Batavia, Illinois, see patterns in data that might - just might - be indicative of signals from a Higgs boson. If so, that particle would have a mass between 115 to 135 GeV." 03-12
- Comparison of Types of Energy Storing Technologies (GreenTechMedia.com)
"Utility-scale energy storage in the field today is limited to pumped hydro, a few large deployments using compressed air energy storage (CAES), hundreds of megawatts of sodium sulphur (NaS) batteries, mostly in Japan, and some experiments with banks of lithium-ion batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries and regenerative fuel cells (flow batteries)."
"Improvements in batteries, fuel cells, hydrogen storage, ultracapacitors, flywheels, phase-change materials, SMES, etc., will come from incremental advances in materials science. Although a black swan would be most welcome in this field, we are dealing with the limits of known elements, compounds and physics. Maybe some revolutionary advance will rock our paradigms, but for now, improvements in energy storage will come from hard, slow work in the labs of materials scientists." 06-12
- -"Power Posing" Works (CNN News)
"When it comes to power, the mind shapes the body, a finding supported by extensive peer-reviewed science. This, to most of us, is not so surprising."
"But what is surprising, when it comes to power, is that the body also shapes the mind. Dana Carney (UC-Berkeley) and I, both experimental social psychologists, have conducted research showing that adopting these postures -- 'power posing' -- actually causes people to become more powerful: After sitting or standing, alone in a room, in a high-power pose for just two minutes, participants in our experiments resembled powerful people -- emotionally, cognitively, behaviorally, and even physiologically." 10-12
- -02-07-06 Breakthrough in Brain Cancer Research (Brightsurf.com)
"In their quest to find and exploit vulnerabilities in the natural armor that protects malignant brain tumors from destruction, researchers have found a way to decrease the cells resistance to therapies that are designed to trigger cell death. The findings resulted from laboratory experiments conducted at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center’s Maxine Dunitz Neurosurgical Institute and are based on the manipulation of a series of intricate biochemical events taking place within brain tumor cells." 02-06
- Field-Initiated Research Studies (National Institute on Educational Governance, Finance, Policymaking and Management)
"The FIS grants are grants for education research projects, including basic and applied research, inquiry with the purpose of applying tested knowledge gained to specific educational settings and problems, development, planning, surveys, assessments, evaluations, investigations, experiments, and demonstrations in the field of education and other fields related to education. Topics and methods of study are generated by the investigators, including teachers and other practitioners. Investigators are encouraged to disseminate information from their work through a wide variety of means, including research and practitioner journals, conference presentations, newspapers and magazines, and newsletters, as appropriate." 10-09
- Science Projects (Exploratorium)
Provides dozens of science experiments. 09-09
- Science Projects (Exploratorium)
Provides almost a dozen science experiments. 09-09
- Cellphones More Dangerous Than Alcohol for Drivers (NewScientist.com)
Describes a study of drivers that concludes that use of a cellphone is more dangerous than having elevated blood alcohol levels. "Driving simulator experiments by researchers at the Transport Research Laboratory found drivers talking on mobile phones had 30 per cent slower reaction times than those who had been drinking, and 50 per cent slower times than sober participants." 3-02
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