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Military Conflicts and Wars
Cuban Missile Crisis
- History of Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, U.S. Naval Station (U.S. Navy)
Provides a detailed history up to 1964. 2-02
- History of Camp X-Ray in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba (U.S. Navy)
Provides a short history of the area used for detaining persons considered by the U.S. government to be most dangerous among those captured in the conflict in Afghanistan. 2-02
- Cuban Missile Crisis (ThinkQuest 11046)
"The Cuban Missile Crisis was the closest the world ever came to nuclear war. The United States armed forces were at their highest state of readiness ever and Soviet field commanders in Cuba were prepared to use battlefield nuclear weapons to defend the island if it was invaded."
"If you want to know everything about the Crisis, however, go to the Crisis Center where the tension begins. The site is also filled with tons of other goodies including the Recon Room, dossiers on the Major Players, and a Situation Room. Before leaving the site be sure to stop by the Debriefing Room to post your thoughts and questions on the message board and take a quiz to test your knowledge on the events of October 1962." 8-02
- Cuban Missile Crisis - Key Players (ThinkQuest 11046)
Provides profiles of key players in the Cuban missile crisis, including Nikita Khrushchev, Anatoly Dobrynin, Fidel Castro, John F. Kennedy, Robert Kennedy, McGeorge Bundy, Robert McNamara, Dean Rusk, Maxwell Taylor, Theodore Sorensen, George Ball, Douglas Dillon, Paul Nitze, and Adlai Stevenson. 8-02
- -10-28-04 UN Condemns U.S. Embargo of Cuba (CBS News)
"For the 13th year in a row, the United Nations General Assembly approved a resolution condemning the U.S. embargo. The vote in favor of the Cuba-sponsored resolution was 179-4. The four opposing votes came from the United States, Israel, Palau and the Marshall Islands." 10-04
- -Evacuation: Cuban Evacuation Success (CNN News)
"Cuba is the largest and most populated island in the Caribbean yet is consistently experiences the lowest death tolls during hurricane season. According to United Nations, it's not because Cubans are lucky but because they're prepared."
"State run television and the civil defense authority bombard the population with information and instructions about what measures to take. On every block, there's a person assigned to take a census on who is being evacuated to which shelter, with special attention paid to the elderly and pregnant women." 9-05
- -0001 The Secret Cuban Missile Crisis--After the One We Know About (BBC News)
"Contrary to popular belief, the Cuban missile crisis did not end with the agreement between the US and Soviet Union in October, 1962. Unknown to the US at the time, there were 100 other nuclear weapons also in the hands of Cuba, sparking a frantic - and ingenious - Russian mission to recover them." 10-12
- Cuban News (Granma Internacional)
Provides news from Cuba in Cuban. 4-00
- Cuba - An American View (Oregonian)
Describes Cuba from the view of a visiting American journalist who wants to see the culture of Cuba undamaged when embargos are lifted in the future. He describes people in Cuba as happy but not satisfied, while he describes Americans as satisfied but not happy. 12-01
- Cuba (CountryReports.org)
Provides a profile by topic, including Economy, Defense, Geography, Government, People, National Anthem, Lyrics and Related Links. Provides a map and a flag. 6-02
- Cuban History (HistoryofCuba.com - Sierra)
Provides a history from 1478 to the present. 8-02
- 05-16-04 Cubans Protest New U.S. Curbs (MSNBC News - Murray)
"Hundreds of thousands of Cubans walk along Havana's seafront during a march to protest against new steps taken by the United States to squeeze Cuba's economy and topple Castro's government." 5-04
- -06-09-08 Cuban Researchers Claim Cancer Breakthrough (MSNBC News)
"A Cuban Scientific Research Institute just patented a promising new drug that it says helps terminal lung cancer patients live longer." 03-08
- Rulers by Country - A-C (Schulz)
Provides a list of leaders by country and date. Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrein, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin (Dahomey), Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cap Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo (Brazzaville), Congo (Kinshasa, former Zaire), Costa Rica, Cote Ivoire (Ivory Coast), Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, and the Czech Republic (Czechoslovakia). leaders, rulers, Presidents, and Prime Ministers 9-00
- World Response to American Crisis (CNN)
Shows that leaders of almost all nations, even traditional adversaries of the USA, such as Cuba and Libya, stated their support for the USA in its time of grief and even in stopping acts of terrorism. In the face of such pain, the world has become one home for us all. 9-01
- Bay of Pigs (ThinkQuest 11046)
Reports on why the USA backed exiles to attack Cuba and how the attack failed. 8-02
- 04-30-03 Terrorist Attacks Decline Sharply (CBS News)
"International terrorist attacks declined sharply in 2002 and the number of anti-U.S. attacks dropped as well, the State Department reported Wednesday."
"The United States again branded seven countries — Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Libya, North Korea, Syria and Sudan — as sponsors of terrorism." 4-03
- 11-10-03 Supreme Court to Rule on Guantanamo Prisoners (BBC News)
"The US Supreme Court is to hear appeals by Afghan war detainees at the US military's Guantanamo Bay camp in Cuba." 11-03
- 12-31-03 Bush Advisors See Syria, Iran, and North Korea as Next Targets (SMH.com.au - Rennie)
"Washington's hawks have sent a public manifesto to President George Bush demanding regime change in Syria and Iran and a Cuba-style military blockade of North Korea backed by planning for a pre-emptive strike on its nuclear sites." 12-03
- 01-05-04 Supreme Court to Rule on Government Imprisonment Policies (CBS News)
"The Supreme Court will announce this month whether it will broaden a review of the Bush administration's imprisonment of terror suspects."
"The court already overrode the objections of the administration in November to take an appeal that asks whether foreigners held at the U.S. Navy base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, may contest their captivity in American courts." 1-04
- 02-13-04 Rumsfeld: Gitmo Detainees to be Allowed Appeal (CBS News)
"Suspected terrorists held at Guantanamo Bay in Cuba will be allowed to appeal their detentions to a new panel that would determine if they are an ongoing threat to the United States, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld said Friday."
"About 660 alleged al Qaeda and Taliban fighters captured in Afghanistan and elsewhere after the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks are being held at the maximum-security prison at the U.S. naval base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, though none has been charged."
Human rights groups and some foreign governments have criticized the detainees' treatment and the lack of trials or access to lawyers."
The Supreme Court will decide this year whether the Guantanamo detainees can be held indefinitely without lawyers and hearings. The Court announced in November that it would consider appeals on behalf of Guantanamo inmates." 2-04
- Panel: Top Officials, Including Rumsfeld, Responsible for Abuses (USA Today)
"An independent panel investigating prisoner abuse in Iraq blamed top Pentagon officials and local commanders for creating conditions that led to "acts of brutality and purposeless sadism" toward some prisoners at the notorious Abu Ghraib prison."
"But it is the first to assign some responsibility for the abuse to top Defense Department officials, including Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld. It implicitly criticized them for confusing policies regarding what was permissible in the interrogation of prisoners in Iraq and at the U.S. naval base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba." 8-04
- -01-24-05 Mass Suicide Attempts at Gitmo (CBS News)
"Twenty-three terror suspects tried to hang or strangle themselves during a weeklong protest orchestrated in 2003 to disrupt operations and unnerve new guards at the U.S. military camp at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, the U.S. military said Monday." 1-05
- Rights of U.S. Prisoners Upheld (Washington Times)
"A federal judge in Washington ruled yesterday that some suspected terrorists detained as 'enemy combatants' at the U.S. Navy base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, have constitutionally guaranteed rights to challenge their confinement in U.S. courts." 1-05
- Castro, Fidel (Biography.com)
"Cuban revolutionary and political leader, premier and president of Cuba, born August 13, 1927 (several sources say 1926), in MayarÍ on his family’s sugar plantation near Biran, Oriente province, Cuba." 2-05
- -11-02-05 Report: CIA Uses Secret Prisons (CBS News)
"The CIA has been hiding and interrogating some of its most important al Qaeda captives at a Soviet-era compound in Eastern Europe, according to U.S. and foreign officials familiar with the arrangement, the Washington Post reported."
"The secret facility is part of a covert prison system set up by the CIA nearly four years ago that at various times has included sites in eight countries, including Thailand, Afghanistan and several democracies in Eastern Europe, as well as a small center at the Guantanamo Bay prison in Cuba, according to current and former intelligence officials and diplomats from three continents, the paper said Tuesday on its Web site."
"The hidden global internment network is a central element in the CIA's unconventional war on terrorism, the Post said. It depends on the cooperation of foreign intelligence services, and on keeping even basic information about the system secret from the public, foreign officials and nearly all members of Congress charged with overseeing the CIA's covert actions." 11-05
- Editorial: Bill Threatens "Unwritten Constitution" (FindLaw)
"Last week, the Senate unanimously approved a defense authorization bill which, if approved by the House, will dramatically curtail the ability of prisoners held at the U.S. Naval Base in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, to challenge their detention in federal court."
"The Amendment's key provision would strip the federal courts of jurisdiction to entertain habeas corpus petitions from Guantanamo Bay detainees--except in two circumstances."
Editor's Note: The purpose of the writ of habeas corpus is to release a person from unlawful imprisonment. The writ addresses whether lawful procedures were used to imprison the person, not whether the person is guilty of a crime. 12-05
- -04-20-06 Pentagon Releases Names of Guantanamo Detainees (TimesOnline)
Provides a list of "many of the detainees who have been held at the Guantanamo Bay detention center in eastern Cuba. The list includes the names and citizenship of all detainees who passed through the Combatant Status Review Tribunal process in 2004 and 2005." 04-06
- Guantanamo's Innocents - After Release (ABC News)
"Even after being cleared of any wrongdoing, five innocent men were kept captive at the detention center at Guantanamo. Today, these men who started out in China and ended up in Cuba are now free and in the Eastern European country of Albania, the only country that would take them. They spoke to the ABC News Law & Justice Unit in their first American interview." 06-06
- -06-12-06 Mounting Pressure to Close Guantanamo (Bloomberg.com)
"The suicides of three detainees in the war on terror triggered increased international pressure on President George W. Bush to close the prison at the U.S. naval base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba." 06-06
- Kennedy, Robert F. (Wikipedia.org)
"Robert Francis 'Bobby' Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. He was one of President Kennedy's most trusted advisors and worked closely with the president during the Cuban Missile Crisis. His contribution to the African-American Civil Rights Movement is sometimes considered his greatest legacy." 11-06
- 12-15-06 "Vicious Killers" Released from Gitmo? (USA Today)
"The Pentagon called them 'among the most dangerous, best-trained, vicious killers on the face of the earth,' sweeping them up after Sept. 11 and hauling them in chains to a U.S. military prison in southeastern Cuba."
"Since then, hundreds of the men have been transferred from Guantanamo Bay to other countries, many of them for 'continued detention.' "
"And then set free." 12-06
- -01-09-07 Chavez to Nationalize Electric and Telecom Firms (USA Today)
"President Hugo Chavez announced plans Monday to nationalize Venezuela's electrical and telecommunications companies, pledging to create a socialist state in a bold move with echoes of Fidel Castro's revolution in Cuba." 01-07
- -03-18-07 Senior Officials: Abusive Interrogations Continued in Gitmo (MSNBC News)
"Speaking publicly for the first time, senior U.S. law enforcement investigators say they waged a long but futile battle inside the Pentagon to stop coercive and degrading treatment of detainees by intelligence interrogators at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba."
"In the end, the law enforcement investigators said, they were not able to stop abusive interrogations, but they were able to slow them." 03-07
- -Editorial: A Review of Sicko (New York Times)
"Mr. Moore makes much of the fact that the World Health Organization ranked the United States 37th in an evaluation of health systems, only one notch above Slovenia. He failed to mention that it was two notches above Cuba."
"Mr. Moore’s heart clearly lies with the single-payer, tax-supported, governmental health systems abroad. That solution would be hard to sell here, where suspicion of the insurance companies is matched if not exceeded by suspicion of the government. Yet the case for some form of universal coverage is strong. The claim that we provide the best medical care in the world is hollow; international comparisons rank us below other industrialized countries on measures of quality, access and clinical outcomes. Mr. Moore is right to ask how a country that spends so much more on health care than any other nation can’t take care of everyone who is sick." 07-07
- -02-19-08 Fidel Castro Resigns After 50 Years of Rule (Time.com)
" 'My desire was always to fulfill my responsibility until my last breath.' With that, Fidel Castro suggested that he had wanted to hang on to power until the very end. But the central message of the letter published early Tuesday morning on the website of Granma, Cuba's official newspaper, was that poor health was forcing him formally to relinquish power. 'To my close compatriots ... I say that I will not aspire to nor accept — I repeat, I will not aspire to nor accept — the office of President of the Council of State or Commander in Chief,' he wrote. His resignation, coming just days before Cuba's National Assembly is to vote for a new leader, brings an end to nearly fifty years of rule." 02-08
- -06-12-08 Supreme Court Rules Gitmo Prisoners Have Rights (Time.com)
"The Supreme Court ruled Thursday that foreign terrorism suspects held at Guantanamo Bay have rights under the Constitution to challenge their detention in U.S. civilian courts."
"In its third rebuke of the Bush administration's treatment of prisoners, the court ruled 5-4 that the government is violating the rights of prisoners being held indefinitely and without charges at the U.S. naval base in Cuba. The court's liberal justices were in the majority."
"Justice Anthony Kennedy, writing for the court, said, 'The laws and Constitution are designed to survive, and remain in force, in extraordinary times.' " 06-08
- -09-07-08 Ike Moving West at Category 4 (Time.com)
"Hurricane Ike slammed into the Turks and Caicos on Saturday as a ferocious Category 4 storm, raking the low-lying island chain with shrieking winds as people hunkered down at home or in emergency shelters."
"Forecasters said Ike was expected to reach the northern coast of eastern Cuba Sunday night or early Monday. Cuba's government warned people to be ready to take emergency action, but hotels said they had not yet started evacuating foreign guests." 09-08
- -03-13-09 Administration Abandons Use of "Enemy Combatant" Term (Time.com)
"The Obama administration is abandoning one of President George W. Bush's key phrases in the war on terrorism: enemy combatant In court filings Friday, the Justice Department said it will no longer use the term to justify holding prisoners at Guantanamo Bay. "
"Obama still asserts the military's authority to hold detainees at the U.S. naval base in Cuba. But his Justice Department says that authority comes from Congress and the international laws of war, not from the president's own wartime power as Bush had argued." 03-09
- -01-12-12 Five Who Were Unjustly Imprisoned (Time.com)
"Jan. 11 marks ten years since the first detainees arrived at the U.S. facility in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Of the 779 imprisoned there since January 2002, only a small minority had any real ties to al-Qaeda. Many were arrested wrongly or turned in by opportunistic bounty hunters. TIME looks at a few tragic tales from the many that make up the grim Guantanamo decade." 01-12
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[Dr. Jerry Adams at email@example.com.]