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  1. Chile's Experience with Privatizing Social Security (AARP)
      "Even Robert Myers, who has high praise for the Chilean reform, reserves his praise for Chile. He by no means recommends comparable reform for the United States (Myers 1992), in large part because the situation of Chile in the late 1970s is in no way comparable to that of the United States in 1995."

      "It should also be noted that while the United States has both an advanced social security system and a well-developed private pension system, Chile has no comparable private pension system beyond the AFPs." 2-05

  2. -01-15-06 Chile Elects First Female President (CNN News)
      "A socialist doctor and former political prisoner was elected as the country’s first female president on Sunday, with her conservative multimillionaire opponent conceding defeat in a race that reflected Latin America's increasingly leftward tilt." 01-06

  3. -Why the Chilean Earthquake Was Expected (
      "Scientists still can't predict exactly when earthquakes will occur, but the massive temblor that struck off the coast of Chile early Saturday was anything but unexpected. Chile sits on the Ring of Fire, the volatile, 40,000 km-long (25,000 MILE) zone that encircles the Pacific Ocean and includes the most seismically dangerous ground on the planet. The unstable plate tectonics along the Ring produce some 90% of the world's earthquakes as well as most of its volcanic eruptions." 02-10

  4. -02-27-10 Chilean Earthquake Was One of the Largest Ever (USA Today)
      "One of the largest earthquakes ever recorded tore apart houses, bridges and highways in central Chile on Saturday and sent a tsunami racing halfway around the world. Chileans near the epicenter were tossed about as if shaken by a giant, and authorities said at least 214 people were dead. The magnitude-8.8 quake was felt as far away as Sao Paulo in Brazil — 1,800 miles (2,900 kilometers) to the east." 02-10

  5. Chile (
      Provides a profile by topic, including Economy, Defense, Geography, Government, People, National Anthem, Lyrics and Related Links. Provides a map and a flag. 6-02

  6. Chile

  7. Chile Re-Elects Bachelet for President (
      "Chile's presidential election was in part a referendum on the past, but voters intend to hold the re-elected President to her promises for the future." 12-13

  8. Rulers by Country - A-C (Schulz)
      Provides a list of leaders by country and date. Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrein, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin (Dahomey), Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cap Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo (Brazzaville), Congo (Kinshasa, former Zaire), Costa Rica, Cote Ivoire (Ivory Coast), Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, and the Czech Republic (Czechoslovakia). leaders, rulers, Presidents, and Prime Ministers 9-00

  9. 08-17-04 Age of Galaxy Finally Estimated (BBC News)
      "A team working with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile report that our galaxy is 13,600 million years old, give or take 800 million years. The observations were made by measuring the content of the element beryllium in two stars contained in a so-called globular cluster in our galaxy. The beryllium content of stars rises with time, so it can be used as a 'cosmic clock' to calculate their ages." 8-04

  10. Starting the "Dark Ages" (
      "In the years 535 and 536, several remarkable aberrations in world climate took place. The Byzantine historian Procopius recorded of 536, "during this year a most dread portent took place. For the sun gave forth its light without brightness… and it seemed exceedingly like the sun in eclipse, for the beams it shed were not clear." Tree ring analysis by dendrochronologist Mike Baillie, of the Queen's University of Belfast, shows abnormally little growth in Irish oak in 536 and another sharp drop in 542, after a partial recovery. Similar patterns are recorded in tree rings from Sweden and Finland, in California's Sierra Nevada and in rings from Chilean Alerce trees." 10-06

  11. Pre-History of the Americas (Christian Science Monitor)
      "New finds from Oregon and Chile support the idea that they arrived 3,000 years earlier than previously thought."

  12. Editorial: Waterboarding Is Torture (
      "Defenders of waterboarding say that the procedure, while awful for the prisoner, is relatively safe and has few long-term effects. But doctors and psychologists who work with torture victims disagree strongly. They say that victims of American waterboarding—like the Chileans submitted to the submarino under Pinochet—are likely to be psychologically damaged for life." 04-09

  13. -Nazca Tectonic Plate Caused Largest Earthquake Recorded (New York Times)
      "The magnitude 8.8 earthquake that struck off the coast of Chile early Saturday morning occurred along the same fault responsible for the biggest quake ever measured, a 1960 tremor that killed nearly 2,000 people in Chile and hundreds more across the Pacific."

      "Both earthquakes took place along a fault zone where the Nazca tectonic plate, the section of the earth’s crust that lies under the Eastern Pacific Ocean south of the Equator, is sliding beneath another section, the South American plate. The two are converging at a rate of about three and a half inches a year."

      "Earthquake experts said the strains built up by that movement, plus the stresses added along the fault zone by the 1960 quake, led to the rupture on Saturday along what is estimated to be about 400 miles of the zone, at a depth of about 22 miles under the sea floor." 02-10

  14. Breakthrough Findings of New Worlds (
      "On Tuesday, a team of stargazers using the European Southern Observatory in the high Chilean desert announced they'd detected a system of at least five, and maybe as many as seven, planets circling a star known as HD 10180, about 127 light-years from Earth, in the direction of the constellation Hydrus. And just two days later, a paper appeared in Science trumpeting the discovery of a multiplanetary system circling a star called Kepler-9, 2,000 light-years away in the constellation Lyra. The latter solar system has only two or three worlds — but the space telescope that found it is so powerful that this discovery is just a hint of the other worlds and other solar systems it may discover in the next few months."

      "Both detections are scientific tours de force in different ways. In the first, scientists found the planets indirectly, by noting how HD 10180 is being tugged back and forth by a swarm of circling planets. That's how the first extrasolar planets were found in the mid-1990s, but the effect is so subtle that doing a clear analysis of the mass and orbit of even a single planet is tough. Untangling multiple, independent, overlapping sets of wobbles is excruciatingly hard." 08-10

  15. -A New Planet Found Beyond the Galaxy (
      "HIP 13044, as it's unglamorously known, has a planet whirling around it — the first planet ever found from outside the Milky Way. Aside from its extra-galactic origin, the planet itself, found with a medium-size telescope at the European Southern Observatory in Chile, and described in a new paper in Science, isn't especially remarkable." 11-10

  16. Seaweed Biofuel (Christian Science Monitor)
      "Cultivating seaweed along three percent of the world's coastlines, where kelp already grows, could produce 60 billion gallons of ethanol, according to Dan Trunfio, BAL's chief executive officer. "

      "Both Richard and Somerville said the production of ethanol from seaweed using their microbial system would likely require more work to become cost-effective on an industrial scale."

      "BAL, which is testing cultivation methods at four pilot seaweed farms off the coast of Chile, is working on commercializing the process to produce ethanol and renewable chemicals, according to Trunfio. Seaweed's advantages, its high sugar content and lack of lignin, make it a viable source for biofuel from a cost perspective, he said."

  17. Ancient Mummies Start to Decay (CBS News)
      "The famous Chinchorro mummies, which have remained preserved in Chile for more than 7,000 years, are now under threat from increased levels of moisture." 03-15

  18. South America - Travel Information by Location (
      Provides information on dining, where to stay, and interesting things to see. Search by city, state, or country. Includes Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile and Easter Island, Colombia, Ecuador and the Galapagos Islands, Falkland Islands, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela. 3-02

  19. 11-28-02 USA Losing Credibility in South America (World Press)
      "Chile’s president, Ricardo Lagos, said, 'Since the 1980s, all of our countries have followed the "Washington Consensus." We reformed our economies and balanced them, opened our markets to increase competition, we recognized that an efficient private sector and expansion was the principal motor to economic progress.' But while Latin America realized notable efforts to modernize and participate in globalization, said Lagos, today’s social and economic balance is far from positive. 'With each passing day, frustration shows on the face of our people on the continent. These political and economic changes haven’t advanced the wellbeing of the masses, inequality continues to grow. This unhealthy economic and social state threatens the legitimacy of the democracies on the continent.' ”

  20. -Oldest Person in 2017 (The
      "‘Don Celino’ is 121, according to his Chilean ID card. That makes him four years older than the Guinness-listed oldest person." 11-17

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