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- Cells - Dictionary of Cell Biology (Virtual Library of Biochemistry and Cell Biology - Fenteany)
Provides sources of information on basic cell structure and activity at an advanced high school or beginning college level. 07-12
- Fuel Cells and Methanol (American Methanol Institute)
Describes the fuel cell, its benefits, and more. Also provides a picture. Fuel cells are designed to leave no pollution when used to power cars. 3-00
- Solar Cells Improve Efficiency (CNN)
Provides an article about greatly improved photovoltaic cells that convert energy from the sun into electricity. The cells use concentrators for greater efficiency. 10-00
- Solar Cells Improve Efficiency Through CIS (CNN - Environmental News Network)
Provides an article about greatly improved photovoltaic cells that convert energy from the sun into electricity. The cells use CIS (copper indium diselenide) technology. 10-00
- Fuel Cells - Hydrogen Fuel Cell Manufacturer (Ballard.com)
Describes the hydrogen fuel cell, its benefits, and more. Also provides an animation. Hydrogen fuel cells are designed to leave no pollution when used to power alternative fuel cars or homes. Ballard is one of the world's first major manufacturers of hydrogen fuel cells for motor vehicles and other applications. 1-01
- Fuel Cells - Resources (FuelCells.com)
Provides sources of information by category. 1-05
- Fuel Cells - Hydrogen Storage for Fuel Cells (theAutoChannel.com)
Describes a breakthrough in hydrogen storage, the MAIN barrier to the use of renewable, nonpolluting hydrogen as a fuel source in automobiles. Hydrogen fuel cells can provide up to 2.5 more energy efficiency than fossil fuel power, such as gasoline or diesel. The new storage tank was developed by a team from IMPCO, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Alcoa, and Thiokol Propulsion. 1-01
- Fuel Cells - Hydrogen Storage for Fuel Cells (Post-Gazette.com - Spice)
Describes a new storage method for hydrogen that uses carbon nanotubes, allowing travel by automobile for thousands of miles on a single tank of hydrogen. 1-01
- How Fuel Cells Work (Plug Power)
Provides diagrams and instructions on how fuel cells work.
- Infrared Photovoltaic Cells (J X Crystals)
Describes a new cell, thermophotovoltaic (TPV), that converts infrared light into electricity. It can be used in a furnace, for example, to convert wasted infrared heat into additional electricity. 6-01
- Regeneration of Fuel Cells (ZMitlitsky)
Describes the Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell (URFC). Regenerating or "recharging" hydrogen fuel in a fuel cell is a key for practical use of fuel cells in autos. 5-01
- Fuel Cells for Iceland (World Press Review - Asmundsson)
Reports that Iceland plans to become the first nation use fuel cells, hydroenergy, and geothermal energy instead of fossil fuels. 2-02
- Cells and Biochemistry (Awesome Library)
Provides information on cells and more. 1-04
- Cells (Awesome Library)
Provides information on genes, cells, chromosomes, DNA, and more.
- Cells (Franklin Institute)
Provides a lesson plan on the cell. "In your classroom, you and your students can make a model of a cell and some of its parts." 5-02
- Cells - Grades 1 - 6 on Molecules and Cells (San Diego State University)
Provides 6 elementary school level lessons on molecules and cells.
- New Source for Hydrogen for Fuel Cells (Wired)
"A microscopic green algae -- known to scientists as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and to regular folk as pond scum -- was discovered more than 60 years ago to split water into hydrogen and oxygen under controlled conditions. A recent breakthrough in controlling the algae's hydrogen yield has prompted a Berkeley, California, company to try to be first to commercialize production." 9-02
- Fuel Cells Based on Borate (Chrisian Science Monitor)
"It involves simple borate - a chemical mined from the ground and used as laundry detergent."
"The company showed a running prototype minivan at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit earlier this month that demonstrates the viability of the 'borax fuel cell.' "
"The fuel cell runs on hydrogen taken from sodium borohydride - a man-made chemical - in its 'gas' tank. What's left is borax soap in the tank. The only emission from the tailpipe is steam." 1-04
- Fuel Cells Based Cars (Ford Motor Co.)
"Sustainable Mobility Technologies' six prototype vehicles represent Ford Motor Company's dedication to preserving the environment. One is already in real-world, limited use. The electric delivery truck is being used by the U.S. Postal Service in communities around the country." 1-04
- Fuel Cells Explained (PowerFrontiers.com)
Describes how different types of hydrogen fuel cells work. 2-04
- Stem Cells
- Sperm Stem Cells Grown Outside the Body (New York Times)
"The ability to cultivate the sperm production cells in large numbers would make it possible to try swapping mutated genes in the cells for normal or improved versions." 11-04
- Method Found to Mass-Produce Embryonic Stem Cells (I-Newswire.com)
"That's important because traditional laboratory methods used to grow these cells are costly and don't produce cells fast enough to respond to increasing demands for human embryonic stem cells, said Shang-Tian Yang, a professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering at Ohio State University."
"Federal rules forbid the federal funding of research on human embryonic stem cell lines that aren't listed on the National Institutes of Health's Human Embryonic Stem Cell Registry. There are currently 22 embryonic stem cell lines on the registry, and the demand for these cells is steadily growing."
" 'We have to find a way to mass-produce them because traditional cell culturing methods can't meet the projected high market demand for stem cells,' Yang said."
"He and Anli Ouyang, a doctoral student in chemical engineering, grew mouse embryonic stem cells in a bioreactor. Cell growth increased 193-fold in 15 days. At the end of that period, cell density - the number of cells that had grown in the bioreactor - was anywhere from 10- to 100-fold higher than the number of stem cells produced by conventional laboratory methods. That's several hundreds of millions more stem cells." 3-05
- Stem Cells Produced Without Animal Products to Contaminate (BBC News)
"Dr de Souza says this makes it the first embryonic stem cell line not directly exposed to any animal products at any stage." 3-05
- Zinc-Air Fuel Cells in Buses (Electric-Fuel.com)
Describes a study to determine if zinc-air fuel cells could be used to power buses in a typical city. The study determined that the buses were cost-competitive with diesel-electric buses but that the method for exchanging depleted fuel cells needed to be more practical. 6-05
- Stem Cells - Questions and Answers (BBC News)
"Stem cells are thought to hold huge potential for treating a wide range of disease and disability."
"They are still at an early stage of development, and retain the potential to turn into many different types of cell." 7-05
- -02-17-06 Growing New Cells to Cure Neurological Diseases (ABC News)
"Scientists are getting closer to reaching one of the Holy Grails of medical research — regenerating brain cells to wipe out a wide range of neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and epilepsy." 02-06
- Top Science Group Offers Ethics Rules on Stem Cells (San Francisco Chronicle)
"The nation's most respected scientific organization proposed ethical guidelines for human embryonic stem cell research Tuesday, offering a system of institutional self-policing as a way to move the politically contentious research forward." 02-06
- Stem Cells Basics (ClearlyExplained.com)
"Stem cells are generally very early stage cells that have the ability to turn into other specialised types of cells." 02-06
- Stem Cells Basics (National Institutes of Health)
"Research on stem cells is advancing knowledge about how an organism develops from a single cell and how healthy cells replace damaged cells in adult organisms. This promising area of science is also leading scientists to investigate the possibility of cell-based therapies to treat disease, which is often referred to as regenerative or reparative medicine." 02-06
- -08-25-06 Stem Cells Without Destroying the Embryo? (MSNBC News)
"Find a way to make stem cells without destroying an embryo and you might resolve one of the nation’s fiercest public debates."
"A biotech company seems to have done it. But early signs are the scientific achievement is not the slam-dunk solution the company had hoped." 08-06
- -09-01-06 Cells Engineered to Fight Cancer (ABC News)
"Researchers took immune system cells from the blood of 17 advanced melanoma patients who, like Origer, had not been helped by conventional treatments. Origer had only three months to four months left to live when the experimental treatment began."
"These ordinary blood cells, called T cells, were genetically engineered to become cancer-fighting cells that could recognize and attack the life-threatening melanoma." 09-06
- Stem Cells May Cure Eye Disease (ScienceDaily.com)
"Scientists have completed a study using mice which showed that bone marrow stem cells can switch roles and produce keratocan, a natural protein involved in the growth of the cornea—the transparent, outer layer of the eyeball. This ability of marrow cells to “differentiate” into keratocan-producing cells might provide a means for treating abnormal corneal cell growth in people." 05-07
- -06-06-07 Biologists Make Skin Cells Work Like Stem Cells (New York Times)
"In a surprising advance that could sidestep the ethical debates surrounding stem cell biology, researchers have come much closer to a major goal of regenerative medicine, the conversion of a patient’s cells into specialized tissues that might replace those lost to disease."
"The new technique, developed by Shinya Yamanaka of Kyoto University, depends on inserting just four genes into a skin cell. These accomplish the same reprogramming task as the egg does, or at least one that seems very similar."
"The technique, if adaptable to human cells, is much easier to apply than nuclear transfer, would not involve the expensive and controversial use of human eggs, and should avoid all or almost all of the ethical criticism directed at the use of embryonic stem cells." 06-07
- Biologists Make Skin Cells Work Like Stem Cells (MSNBC News)
"In a leap forward for stem cell research, three independent teams of scientists reported Wednesday that they have produced the equivalent of embryonic stem cells in mice using skin cells without the controversial destruction of embryos."
"If the same could be done with human skin cells — a big if — the procedure could lead to breakthrough medical treatments without the contentious ethical and political debates surrounding the use of embryos."
"Embryonic stem cells are prized because they can develop into all types of tissue. So experts believe they might be used for transplant therapies in people who are paralyzed or have illnesses ranging from diabetes to Parkinson’s disease." 06-07
- Biologists Make Skin Cells Work Like Stem Cells (Christian Science Monitor)
"Scientists in the United States and Japan announced yesterday that they have developed artificial stem cells from adult mouse cells. If the approach can be retooled for humans, they say, it would avoid the ethical quicksand that surrounds the use of stem cells drawn from nascent human embryos." 06-07
- Stem Cells Stall Brain Disease in Mice for First Time (MSNBC News)
"Human stem cells taken from both embryos and fetuses delayed a fatal brain and nerve disease in mice, moving throughout the brain to take on the jobs of damaged neurons, scientists report."
"They said their study, published in the journal Nature Medicine, represents the first time a human embryonic stem cell has successfully treated a disease in an animal." 06-07
- -09-19-07 New Source for Stem Cells (CBS News)
"Researchers hope to one day extract stem cells from testicles that could be directed to grow into all kinds of tissues to repair everything from a damaged heart to brains destroyed by Alzheimer's to insulin-producing cells to cure diabetes."
"So far, the researchers have found a way to grow different tissues from stem cells isolated from the testes of laboratory mice, but they believe the same technology could work in humans." 09-07
- -11-26-07 Skin Cells into Stem Cell Breakthrough? (Christian Science Monitor)
"Colonies of tiny cells flourishing in petri dishes in the US and Japan are reshaping the political and ethical landscape surrounding human stem-cell research."
"In the process, these diminutive colonies also may level the playing field in stem-cell research – internationally and domestically."
"These are some of the effects analysts say they see coming out of this week's announcements that two teams have genetically reprogrammed skin cells so that they take on the traits of embryonic stem cells." 11-07
- -12-16-07 Stem Cells Used to Repair Breast Surgery (Wired.com)
"For the first time, doctors have used stem cells from liposuctioned fat to fix breast defects in women who have had cancerous lumps removed." 12-07
- Why Hydrogen-Based Fuel Cells Are Not Plausible for Near Future (AlternateFuelsWorld.com)
"As anyone may discern from the briefest perusal of this Website, we believe that the peak of conventional oil production is likely within a few years, and that production from conventional natural gas resources may peak soon after. In as much as most hydrogen is produced from natural gas, and because production from renewables is very costly, fossil fuel scarcities will not prompt a widespread switch to hydrogen fuel in the near or mid term." 02-08
- Highly Efficient Solar Cells Developed (ScienceDaily.com)
"Photovoltaic panels have a new design: concentric circles that focus the sun's rays on miniaturized modules. Having the panels automatically sense sunlight and turn towards it also makes these high-tech solar cells more efficient."
"Conventional solar systems are about 14 percent efficient. This system has a combined heat and power efficiency of nearly 80 percent. 'What they're doing is very efficiently capturing and transferring that light into electricity and the solar heat into hot water,' Dyson explains." 06-08
- -03-04-09 Obama Overturns Bush Policy on Stem Cells (CNN News)
"President Obama signed an executive order Monday repealing a Bush-era policy that limited federal tax dollars for embryonic stem cell research." 03-09
- -03-04-09 10 Diseases Stem Cells May Cure (U.S. News)
"Excitement over the embryonic cells comes from their remarkable ability, as biological blank slates, to become virtually any of the body's cell types. Many observers believe the president's move will accelerate the hunt for cures for some of our most vexing diseases." 03-09
- -05-19-09 Stems Cells Target Tumors (U.S. News)
"In mice, genetically engineered cells killed cancer but spared healthy cells." 05-09
- -10-12-09 Stem Cells Grow New Cheek Bones (ABC News)
"Brad had an experimental eight-hour operation in May at the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, where doctors implanted cadaver bone into his face. They then injected Brad's own stem cells into the donor bone."
"From a medical standpoint, the results were miraculous." 10-09
- Recycling Solar Cells (NewScientist.com)
"A few solar companies are already offering their own recycling schemes. First Solar, based in Tempe, Arizona, offers to take back and recycle all the cadmium telluride thin-film solar cells it produces. And the industry-backed European association PV Cycle, based in Brussels in Belgium, is implementing a voluntary take-back and recycle programme that it hopes to have running by 2015." 10-10
- -Direct Conversion of Stem Cells (CBS News)
"The new direct-conversion approach avoids embryonic stem cells and the whole notion of returning to an early state. Why not just go directly from one specialized cell to another? (It's like flying direct rather than scheduling a stopover.)" The direct-conversion of stem cells has resulted in "scientists converting mouse skin cells into nerve cells and heart muscle cells. And just this month came success with human cells, turning skin cells into early stage blood cells." 11-10
- Link Found for Complex Cells (ScienceDaily.com)
"A common group of bacteria found in acid bogs and sewage treatment plants has provided scientists with evidence of a 'missing link' in one of the most important steps in the evolution of life on Earth -- the emergence of cells with a nucleus containing DNA (eukaryotic cells)." 11-10
- -12-15-10 Doctors Say Stem Cells Cured Man of AIDS Virus (KKKTV.com)
"Stem cells have been credited with all sorts of medical magic. Now it looks as if they may have cured a man of his HIV infection."
"In 2007, the 40-something-year-old American underwent a blood stem cell transplant to treat leukemia. His donor not only was a good blood match but also had a mutant gene that confers natural resistance to HIV, the virus that causes AIDS."
"Now, three years later, the man shows no sign of leukemia or HIV, according to a report in the journal 'Blood.' " 12-10
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