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  1. Inupiat of the Arctic Circle (
      "By the mid-1960s, there was general agreement that while religious institututions could help a great deal in providing a sense of identity and purpose for the devout, they were simply not designed to address the mounting economic problems facing indigenous Arctic Alaskans and other Native peoples within the state. Just how serious were these problems?"

  2. Arctic Ocean (
      "The Arctic Ocean, located entirely in the north polar region, is the smallest of the world's five oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and Southern Ocean), and the shallowest." 10-04

  3. Arctic Circle

  4. Warmest Arctic in 400 Years (ABC News)
      "This season has ushered in the warmest Arctic summer in 400 years. A NASA report to be released this week finds the polar ice pack has shrunk by nearly 30 percent since 1978, and new satellite photos show the melting is speeding up." 9-05

  5. Scientists: Arctic Ice Loss Triggering Global Warming (BBC News)
      " 'September 2005 will set a new record minimum in the amount of Arctic sea ice cover,' said Mark Serreze, of the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), Boulder, Colorado.' "

      "The current rate of shrinkage they calculate at 8% per decade; at this rate there may be no ice at all during the summer of 2060."

      " 'These dark areas absorb a lot of the Sun's energy, much more than the ice, and what happens then is that the oceans start to warm up, and it becomes very difficult for ice to form during the following autumn and winter.' "

      " 'It looks like this is exactly what we're seeing - a positive feedback effect, a "tipping-point".' "

      "The idea behind tipping-points is that at some stage the rate of global warming would accelerate, as rising temperatures break down natural restraints or trigger environmental changes which release further amounts of greenhouse gases."

      "The Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, a four-year study involving hundreds of scientists, projected an additional temperature rise of 4-7C by 2100." 9-05

  6. Hydrothermic Activity Beneath the Arctic Ocean (Max Planck Society)
      "The scientists had expected that the Gakkel ridge would exhibit 'anemic' magmatism. Instead, surprisingly strong magmatic activity in the West and the East of the ridge and one of the strongest hydrothermal activities ever seen at mid-ocean ridges were found. These results require a fundamental rethinking of the mechanisms of seafloor generation at midocean ridges."

  7. Study: Arctic Was Once Tropical (Washington Times)
      "First-of-its-kind core samples dug up from deep beneath the Arctic Ocean floor show that 55 million years ago an area near the North Pole was practically a subtropical paradise, three new studies show."

      "Millions of years ago the Earth experienced an extended period of natural global warming. But about 55 million years ago there was a sudden supercharged spike of carbon dioxide that accelerated the greenhouse effect."

      "Scientists already knew this 'thermal event' happened but are not sure what caused it. Perhaps massive releases of methane from the ocean, the continent-sized burning of trees, numerous volcanic eruptions." 05-06

  8. Arctic Is Melting Fast (National Geographic)
      " 'The Arctic is the early warning for the rest of the world,' said Sheila Watt-Cloutier of the Inuit Circumpolar Conference. 'What happens to the planet happens first in the Arctic. Protect the Arctic and we save the planet. We must all take what action we can to slow the pace of climate change, while there is still time.' " 06-06

  9. Map of the Arctic Circle (
      Provides a map with the Arctic Circle clearly marked. 10-04

  10. -10-05-06 "Monster" Fossil Found in Arctic (BBC News)
      "Norwegian scientists have discovered a "treasure trove" of fossils belonging to giant sea reptiles that roamed the seas at the time of the dinosaurs."

      "The fossil hoard comprises 21 long-necked plesiosaurs, six ichthyosaurs and one short-necked plesiosaur. The bones were unearthed in fine-grained sedimentary rock called black shale." 10-06

  11. -08-11-07 Race for Arctic Seabed Is On (CBS News)
      "Canada's prime minister announced plans Friday for an army training center and a deepwater port on the third day of an Arctic trip meant to assert sovereignty over a region, while Denmark said it was staking its own claim with a scientific expedition."

      "Global warming has raised the stakes in the scramble for sovereignty in the Arctic because shrinking polar ice could someday open up resource development and new shipping lanes."

      "As global warming melts the passage which is navigable only during a slim window in the summer the waters are exposing unexplored resources, and becoming an attractive shipping route. Commercial ships can shave off some 2,480 miles from Europe to Asia compared with the current routes through the Panama Canal." 08-07

  12. Study: Summer Arctic Ice May Be Gone by 2013 (BBC News)
      "The most extreme scenario was for the ice to retreat as soon as 2013, but that was dismissed by many as far too soon."

      "Now Professor Wadhams, who has studied the Arctic for the past 40 years, says that there is 'almost a breakdown' in the ice-cover."

      "Over most of the Arctic, there has been a massive decline in the amount of so-called multi-year ice - ice that is tough enough to withstand the summer warmth." 05-09

  13. Understanding Climate Change in the Arctic (
      "Arctic news is a selection of international Internet news items related to climate issues in the Arctic and is updated daily." 05-09

  14. Arctic Ice on Greenland (
      "In this frigid Arctic environment, approximately 85 percent of the island's surface is covered by a permanent ice cap. Averaging 5,000 feet in thickness, the ice cap in some places is as much as 14,000 feet thick and includes about 10 percent of all the ice in the world." 05-09

  15. Arctic Ice on Greenland (
      "So far, flights led by Krabill have found evidence that, in general, ice along Greenland's coast is thinning while some areas inland are thickening. Still, the net change points to an overall loss. There's enough ice and snow in Greenland to raise sea level by about 7 meters (23 feet) if it were to all melt." 05-09

  16. -09-03-09 Study: Arctic Warming But Should Be Cooling (MSNBC News)
      "The Arctic is warmer than it's been in 2,000 years, according to a new study, even though it should be cooling because of changes in the Earth's orbit that cause the region to get less direct sunlight." 09-09

  17. Arctic Trek (MSNBC News)
      "Eric Larsen is attempting to be the first person to trek to the South Pole, North Pole and Mount Everest in one year. Larsen completed the South Pole leg in January, and on Wednesday began the nearly 500-mile North Pole trek along with two team members, Darcy St. Laurent and Antony Jinman, taking off from Canada's Cape Discovery on Ellesmere Island. will be posting select dispatches from Larsen and his team." 03-10

  18. -10-21-10 The Arctic of Old Is Gone (MSNBC News)
      "The Arctic an area described as Earth's refrigerator because its ice helps keep temperatures cool continues to warm up and is unlikely to return to earlier conditions, according to an annual report card issued Thursday by top scientists." 10-10

  19. -12-01-11 Arctic Getting Worse: A Tipping Point? (CBS News)
      "A new report card from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration rates the polar region with blazing red stop lights on three of five categories and yellow cautions for the other two. Overall, these are not good grades, but it doesn't mean the Arctic is doomed and it still will freeze in the winter, said report co-editor Jackie Richter-Menge."

      "The Arctic acts as Earth's refrigerator, cooling the planet. What's happening, scientists said, is like someone pushing the fridge's thermostat much too high."

      " 'We've got a new normal,' said co-author Don Perovich, a geophysicist at the Army Corps of Engineers Cold Research and Engineering Lab. 'Whether it's a tipping point and we'll never recover, who's to say?' " 12-11

  20. Exceptional Ecosystem Found Under Arctic Ice (New York Times)
      "The quantities of plankton are 'truly exceptional,' says Walker Smith, a marine biologist at the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg, Va., who was not part of the team conducting the research."

      "If these blooms are widespread under the ice along continental shelves, the primary productivity in these regions could be up to 10 times greater than open-water productivity, the team estimates."

      "In addition, researchers have noted that the Arctic ocean is becoming an enormous sink for atmospheric CO2 as the waters open up in the summer. Yet the open waters in the Chukchi Sea don't show the levels of dissolved CO2 they should if that's the case. Now, it looks as though the answer lies with the under-ice phytoplankton blooms, because they consume the CO2 via photosynthesis, just as land plants do." 06-12

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