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Terms: anthrax
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  1. Anthrax Vaccine (US Department of Defense)
      Provides information on the effectiveness and safety of the anthrax vaccine to prevent anthrax before exposure to the disease. 10-01

  2. Anthrax (US Department of Defense)
      Provides information on the disease. 10-01

  3. Anthrax History (CNN)
      Provides a timeline of events related to anthrax as a disease and as a biological weapon. 10-01

  4. Anthrax - Separating Fears from Facts (
      Describes what needs to be done to make the public safer from bioterrorism. Explains that buying gas masks and taking antibiotics, such as Cipro, will not help the situation. 10-01

  5. Anthrax Source Found (Oregonian - Recer)
      Describes the discovery of the source of the anthrax that was used in bioterrorism in Florida and Washington DC. the strain, called Ames, was believed to have come from Ames, Idaho, but it actually came from Texas. 12-01

  6. Carnegie: Pre-emptive War on Iraq not Valid (BBC News - Reynolds)
      "The latest assessment of Iraq's weapons of mass destruction is scornful of the way intelligence was presented and goes beyond concluding that Iraq was not an imminent threat - it calls for an end to the US doctrine of pre-emptive war."

      "As far as the WMD were concerned, it [the Carnegie report] concluded:

      "Iraq's nuclear programme had been suspended for many years. Iraq focussed on preserving a dual-use chemical and problem biological weapons capability but not on weapons production. Iraqi nerve agents had lost most of their lethality by 1991."

      "The intelligence community overestimated the chemical and biological weapons in Iraq."

      "Intelligence agencies appear to have been unduly influenced by policymakers' views. Officials misrepresented the threat over and above intelligence findings."

      "There was no solid evidence linking Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda, nor evidence that Iraq would transfer WMD to terrorists."

      "Among the examples quoted of how officials went beyond the known facts to exaggerate the threat was a comment from President Bush who said:"

      " 'The regime was forced to admit that it had produced more than 30,000 litres of anthrax and other deadly biological agents.' "

      "In fact, the report notes, UN inspectors had commented only that Iraq might have imported enough growth media to produce these amounts, not quite the same thing." 1-04

  7. Bad Intelligence on Weapons of Mass Distruction (MSNBC News - Newsweek - Barry and Hosenball)
      Reviews the circumstances leading up to the U.S. failure to find weapons of mass destruction in Iraq. Identifies a key problem to be that the CIA and the Bush administration did not have real evidence of an Iraqi program of weapons of mass destruction, but yet they stated that they did have the evidence.

      U.S. chief weapons inspector Kay noted that "...Iraq was a monumental intelligence failure."

      "How did it happen? The United States spends more to run spy satellites and supersecret listening devices than the gross domestic products of many countries, yet it didn't have a clue as to what was really going on inside a sanctions-racked dictatorship it was about to attack?"

      "But if for no other reason than to restore American credibility, an unbiased review of the Iraq intelligence process may be vital. Who will believe the next American official who goes to the United Nations wagging a vial of fake anthrax, arguing that North Korea or Iran or some other 'rogue state' needs to be taken out before it attacks first? More worrisome still, the next dire warning may well be right." 1-04

  8. -12-19-05 Makers of Weapons of Mass Destruction Released in Iraq (MSNBC News)
      " 'The release was an American-Iraqi decision and in line with an Iraqi government ruling made in December 2004, but hasn’t been enforced until after the elections in an attempt to ease the political pressure in Iraq, said the lawyer, Badee Izzat Aref."

      "Among them were Rihab Taha, a British-educated biological weapons expert, who was known as 'Dr. Germ' for her role in making bio-weapons in the 1980s, and Huda Salih Mahdi Ammash, known as 'Mrs. Anthrax,' a former top Baath Party official and biotech researcher, Aref said." 12-05

  9. -02-18-13 Selling of the Iraq War (MSNBC News)
      "The talking points suggest Rumsfeld and his team were grappling with a tricky issue: 'How [to] start?' the war. In other words, what would the pretext be? Various scenarios were outlined: 'US discovers Saddam connection to Sept. 11 attack or to anthrax attacks?' reads one of them. 'Dispute over WMD inspections?' reads another. 'Start now thinking about inspection demands.' "

      "These talking points make it clearer than ever that Cheney, Rumsfeld, Wolfowitz and others were determined–probably from the moment they came into office–to invade Iraq. Paul Pillar–then one of the CIA’s top terrorism analysts—says in the documentary that the 9/11 attacks 'made it politically possible for the first time to persuade the American people to break a tradition of not launching offensive wars.' But to achieve the goal, secret intelligence was twisted, massaged, and wildly exaggerated. 'It wasn’t a matter of lying about this or lying about that,' Pillar says. 'But rather—through the artistry of speechwriters and case-presenters—conveying an impression to the American people that certain things were true.' But those things were not true. It’s worth watching to see how it was done." 02-13

  10. Respirators for Pandemics (UCLA)
      "The N95 rating [for face masks] meets the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for protection against tuberculosis and anthrax spores, as well as the most foreseeable bioweaponry, which ranges in size from 1.0 to 5.0 microns. So the N95s are more than capable of preventing their inhalation."

      "Even in a biological attack, the masks have major shortcomings. Like fit."

      " 'Does it have a nose piece like a metal clip you can bend over your nose? That's a better model because the big kicker here is getting a good fit,' Utgoff says."

      "Bad fits are deadly. Contaminated air breathed from around the unfiltered edges instead of through the N95-rated material undermines the purpose of a mask."

      "And, got a beard? 'Shave it,' says Breysse, who recommends duct-taping the mask to your face to make a good fit." 07-07

  11. -12-19-07 Study Reveals Readiness of States for a Pandemic (USA Today)
      "Thirteen states don't have adequate plans to distribute vaccines and antidotes in the event of a flu pandemic or a bioterrorism attack, according to a health preparedness report out Tuesday."

      "The Trust for America's Health, a non-partisan research organization, found that states have made significant progress in preparing for major health emergencies since 9/11 and the anthrax attacks of 2001. But large gaps in readiness still exist, the report said." 12-07

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