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  1. An Organism Survives Antarctica, Maybe Mars (Time.com)
      "Say what you will about the simple, uninteresting lives of microorganisms, they're tough little critters. You try surviving for a million and a half years without heat, food or sunlight and see how you do. A team of National Science Foundation researchers just discovered a species of Antarctic organisms that has accomplished exactly that — and the microbes' unlikely survival can tell us a lot not just about the adaptability of life on Earth, but the prospects for it on Mars." 04-09

  2. Antarctica Ice Melting (Time.com)
      "According to a new report in Nature, glaciers are getting thinner all around the perimeter of Greenland, and in western Antarctica as well. It's not so much that they're melting, says lead author Hamish Pritchard, of the British Antarctic Survey; it's that their seaward motion is accelerating. And, says Pritchard, 'that's a much more rapid way of losing ice than through melting alone.' " 2-06

  3. Antarctica

  4. Animated Pictures of Ice Flow in Antarctica (GreenhouseNeutralFoundation.org)
      Uses colors to show the flow of ice. Pictures were collected and compiled from satellite images. 02-12

  5. Antarctica - Travel Information by Location (Excite.Travel.com)
      Provides information by area. 3-02

  6. Antarctica (CountryReports.org)
      Provides a profile by topic, including Economy, Defense, Geography, Government, People, National Anthem, Lyrics and Related Links. Provides a map and a flag. 6-02

  7. Antarctica (InfoPlease.com)
      Provides information on the history, culture, and geography. 01-06

  8. Antarctica (CIA.gov)
      Provides a history of the country, including history (Introduction), military, transportation, geography, people, economy, communications, transnational issues, and a map. 2-06

  9. Earth Climate History Through Ice Caps (PBS.org)
      Provides graphs and explanations of climate changes, as well as greenhouse gases, radioactivity, and other measures. Shows that climate over the past ten thousand years has been very stable compared to the time before. Uses ice cores from Antarctica to determine past climate. 3-01

  10. New Underwater Volcano Found (Bloomberg.com)
      "A previously unknown underwater volcano has been discovered off the coast of Antarctica, the National Science Foundation said Thursday." 5-04

  11. Southern Ocean (Wikipedia.org)
      "The Southern Ocean is the body of water encircling the continent of Antarctica. It is the world's fourth-largest body of water, and the latest to be defined as an Ocean, having been accepted by a decision of the International Hydrographic Organization in 2000, though the term has long been traditional among mariners. Prior to that, the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans were considered to extend to Antarctica." 10-04

  12. -07-17-05 Ice Shelf Collapse Reveals Extreme Life Forms (MSNBC News)
      "The collapse of a giant ice shelf in Antarctica has revealed a thriving ecosystem half a mile below the sea."

      "Despite near freezing and sunless conditions, a community of clams and a thin layer of bacterial mats are flourishing in undersea sediments."

      "Since light could not penetrate the ice or water, these organisms do not use photosynthesis to make energy. Instead, these extreme creatures get their energy from methane, Domack said today." 7-05

  13. -12-11-05 Ice Core Extends Climate Record 650,000 Years (Scientific American)
      "Researchers have recovered a nearly two-mile-long cylinder of ice from eastern Antarctica that contains a record of atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane--two potent and ubiquitous greenhouse gases--spanning the last two glacial periods. Analysis of this core shows that current atmospheric concentrations of CO2--380 parts per million (ppm)--are 27 percent higher than the highest levels found in the last 650,000 years." 12-05

  14. -03-04-06 Our Poles Are Melting (ABC News)
      "For the first time, scientists have confirmed Earth is melting at both ends, which could have disastrous effects for coastal cities and villages."

      "Antarctica has been called 'a slumbering giant' by a climate scientist who predicts that if all the ice melted, sea levels would rise by 200 feet. Other scientists believe that such a thing won't happen, but new studies show that the slumbering giant has started to stir." 03-06

  15. Freshwater in the Polar Ice Caps (Hypertextbook.com)
      "Ice caps are found in several places in the Arctic region (Greenland, Iceland, Baffin Island, and the island of Spitsbergen) and over most of the Antarctic region. Approximately 90% of the ice on earth, is found either in Greenland or in Antarctica. The largest ice caps on the planet are found there. Greenland is a plateau surrounded by mountains. Antarctica is composed of mountains, valleys, and lowlands. From my research, I have found different values for the volume of the polar ice caps. For Antarctica, the approximate volume is 30,000,000 km3. For Greenland, it is approximately 3,000,000 km3."

      "The volume of the polar ice caps is very important, because it may provide answers to future problems regarding the earth's fresh water. In the future, fresh water in the other six continents might be depleted. Since ice caps contain over 80% of the earth's fresh water, they could be used in the future to provide fresh water for earth's growing population." 07-07

  16. Polar Ice Caps and Rising Ocean Levels (HowStuffWorks.com)
      "The main ice covered landmass is Antarctica at the South Pole, with about 90 percent of the world's ice (and 70 percent of its fresh water). Antarctica is covered with ice an average of 2,133 meters (7,000 feet) thick. If all of the Antarctic ice melted, sea levels around the world would rise about 61 meters (200 feet). But the average temperature in Antarctica is -37°C, so the ice there is in no danger of melting. In fact in most parts of the continent it never gets above freezing."

      "At the other end of the world, the North Pole, the ice is not nearly as thick as at the South Pole. The ice floats on the Arctic Ocean. If it melted sea levels would not be affected."

      "There is a significant amount of ice covering Greenland, which would add another 7 meters (20 feet) to the oceans if it melted. Because Greenland is closer to the equator than Antarctica, the temperatures there are higher, so the ice is more likely to melt." 07-07

  17. Glaciers Melting Faster Than Thought (CBS News)
      "Glaciers in Antarctica are melting faster and across a much wider area than previously thought, a development that threatens to raise sea levels worldwide and force millions of people to flee low-lying areas, scientists said Wednesday."

      "By the end of the century, the accelerated melting could cause sea levels to climb by 3 to 5 feet - levels substantially higher than predicted by a major scientific group just two years ago."

      "Making matters worse, scientists said, the ice shelves that hold the glaciers back from the sea are also weakening."

      "The big surprise was exactly how much glaciers are melting in western Antarctica, a vast land mass on the Pacific Ocean side of the continent that is next to the South Pole and includes the Antarctic Peninsula." 02-09

  18. Southern Ocean (About.com)
      "In 2000, the International Hydrographic Organization created the fifth world ocean - the Southern Ocean - from the southern portions of the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean. The Southern Ocean completely surrounds Antarctica."

      "The Southern Ocean extends from the coast of Antarctica north to 60 degrees south latitude. The Southern Ocean is now the fourth largest of the world's five oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Indian Ocean, but larger than the Arctic Ocean)." 10-08

  19. Southern Ocean (Windows to the Universe)
      "So what makes the Southern Ocean an ocean?"

      "According to the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), because of its distinct circulation pattern, the waters of the Southern Ocean are somewhat separated from other oceans even without continents to form borders. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current is the strong ocean current that circles eastward around Antarctica." 05-09

  20. Sauropods (Wikipedia.org)
      "They are notable for the enormous sizes attained by some species, and the group includes many of the largest animals to have ever lived on land. Well-known genera include Apatosaurus (formerly known as Brontosaurus), Brachiosaurus and Diplodocus. Sauropods first appeared in the late Triassic Period, where they somewhat resembled the closely related (and possibly ancestral) group Prosauropoda. By the Late Jurassic (150 million years ago), sauropods were widespread (especially the diplodocids and brachiosaurids). By the Late Cretaceous, those groups had mainly been replaced by the titanosaurs, which had a near-global distribution. However, as with all other non-avian dinosaurs, the titanosaurs died out in the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event. Fossilised [sic] remains of sauropods have been found on every continent, including Antarctica."

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